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ALGAE

ALGAE

  • : 한국조류학회
  • : 자연과학분야  >  생물
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 1226-2617
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1986)~24권4호(2009) |수록논문 수 : 733
ALGAE
24권4호(2009년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1The Study of Cyanobacterial Flora from Geothermal Springs of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India

저자 : Manojit Debnath , Narayan Chandra Mandal , Samit Ray

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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Geothermal springs in India, formed as a result of volcanic or tectonic activities, are characterized by high temperature and relatively abundant reduced compounds. These thermal springs are inhabited by characteristic thermophilic organisms including cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are among the few organisms that can occupy high temperature aquatic environments including hot springs. In alkaline and neutral hot springs and streams flowing from them cyanobacteria can form thick colourful mats that exhibit banding patterns. The present investigation involves study of mat forming cyanobacterial flora from hot springs located in Bakreswar, West Bengal, India. The important species found are Synechococcus bigranulatus, S. lividus, Gloeocapsa gelatinosa, G. muralis, Phormidium laminosum, P. frigidum, Oscillatoria princes, O. fragilis, Lyngbya lutea, Pseudanabaena sp., Calothrix thermalis, and Fischerella thermalis. Their distribution pattern in relation to physico-chemical parameters of spring water has also been studied. Three cyanobacterial strains of the above mentioned list were grown in culture and their pigment content and nitrogen fixing capacity were also studied. Nitrogen fixing capacities of Calothrix thermalis, Nostoc sp. (isolated in culture) and Fischerella thermalis are 5.14, 0.29, and 2.60 n mole C2H4/μg of Chl-a/hr respectively. Carotenoid: Chlorophyll-a ratio of four mat samples collected from Kharkunda, Suryakunda, Dudhkunda and bathing pool are 2.45, 1.60, 1.48, and 1.34, respectively. Higher value of Carotenoid: Chlorophyll-a ratio coincided with higher temperature.

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2Morphological Characteristics of Four Species in the Genus Skeletonema in Coastal Waters of South Korea

저자 : Seung Won Jung , Suk Min Yun , Sang Deuk Lee , Young Ok Kim , Jin Hwan Lee

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 195-203 (9 pages)

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Most Skeletonema species have been identified under the name of S. costatum. To assess the morphological species diversity in the genus Skeletonema, we surveyed the nine localities in the coastal waters of South Korea. The light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study showed that ultrastructural features of genus Skeletonema discriminated among four species: S. dohrnii Sarno & Kooistra, S. marinoi Sarno & Zingone, S. subsalsum (Cleve) Bethge, and S. tropicum Cleve. In S. dohrnii, cell diameters were 3-6 μm and the pervalvar axes were 13-19 μm. One or two partial chloroplasts were visible in a cell. Cells of S. marinoi were 4-10 μm and the pervalvar axes were 8-18 μm. Each cell contained one chloroplast. Cells of S. subsalsum which contained 1-2 chloroplasts were 8-13 μm and the pervalvar axes were 11-20 μm. Cells of S. tropicum were 10-18 μm and the pervalvar axes were 4-9 μm. 2-4 chloroplasts were seen in each cell. Tip width of fultoportula in S. dohrnii and S. marioni was flared and flat, but that in S. subsalsum and S. tropicum was narrow. Morphological groups among them, S. dohrnii and S. marinoi were the most widely distributed in all seasons, while S. tropicum was only occurred in a summer season.

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3Genetic Relationships among Multiple Strains of the Genus Tetraselmis Based on Partial 18S rDNA Sequences

저자 : Hye Jung Lee , Sung Bum Hur

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 205-212 (8 pages)

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Molecular genetic tools are widely used to learn more about the identical characterization of obscure microalgal strains. At the Korea Marine Microalgae Culture Center (KMMCC), the authors deduced the genetic relationship of 41 strains of the genus Tetraselmis by analysing a small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences. Forty-one strains were seperated into five groups, which showed over a 98-99% similarity to Tetraselmis striata or Tetraselmis sp. Tsbre. Also, 13 strains among them had an identical genotype to Tetraselmis striata while 5 strains had with Tetraselmis sp. Tsbre, respectively. The mean size of each strain generally showed the tendency of different variation according to the groups.

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4Taxonomic Reassessment of the Genus Padina (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) from the Gulf of California

저자 : Rafael Riosmena Rodriguez , Litzia Paul Chavez , Gustavo Hernandez Carmona , Juan Manuel Lopez Vivas , Margarita Casas Valdez

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 213-229 (17 pages)

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A monographic reassessment of Padina Adanson species from the Gulf of California was developed based on an exhaustive review of the character and characters states that have been used to delimit species in recent and historically valuable collections. Eight names (P. caulescens Thivy in Taylor, P. concrescens Thivy in Taylor, P. crispata Thivy in Taylor, P. durvillaei Bory Saint-Vincent, P. gymnospora [Kutzing] Sonder, P. mexicana Dawson, P. tetrastromatica Hauck and P. vickersiae Hoyt in Howe) were reported from the region. An analysis of 1,200 specimens led to the conclusion that only three species (P. durvillaei, P. concrescens and P. mexicana) can be recognized for the area based on four discriminating characters: presence of calcium carbonate in the cell wall; number of medullary cell layers in the basal area; number of medullary cell layers in the middle part and presence/absence of cortical cells. Comparative analysis of the species in the Gulf of California in relation to other recently evaluated species has shown a clear distinction among them suggesting Padina species were overestimated in our area.

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5Molecular Classification of the Genus Grateloupia (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) in Korea

저자 : Ju Il Lee , Hyung Geun Kim , Paul John L. Geraldino , Il Ki Hwang , Sung Min Boo

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 231-238 (8 pages)

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The genus Grateloupia is the largest with more than 96 currently recognized species in the family Halymeniaceae, but morphological features of the genus are highly homoplasious making species identification difficult. In this study, we analyzed rbcL gene from 34 samples collected in Korea and compared the haplotypes of Korean species with those already published. The rbcL tree confirmed the occurrence of eight species in Korea: G. asiatica, G. catenata, G. divaricata, G. elliptica, G. imbricata, G. lanceolata, G. subpectina, and G. turuturu. All, except G. asiatica and G.catenata, been introduced from their native northeastern Asian waters to Australasian, European, and North American waters. The introduced haplotypes of G. lanceolata in Europe and North America were absent in Korea, while haplotype sharing of G. turuturu in Korea and Europe was common. Further sampling will show a source population of each introduced species and also provide a correct list of Grateloupia from Korea, including the other remaining 11 species of the genus.

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6Cell Division in the Absence of Mitosis: The Unusual Case of the Fucoid Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Phaeophyceae)

저자 : David J. Garbary , Greg Lawson , Kelly Clement , Moira E. Galway

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 239-248 (10 pages)

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Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to examine epidermal shedding in the fucoid alga, Ascophyllum nodosum. Mature meristoderm cells are ca. 50-100 × 30-40 μm and highly polarized, with a single nucleus and chloroplasts near the base of the cell. Nuclei in these cells undergo mitosis when they are dividing to form a new cortical cell towards the middle of the frond, or anticlinal divisions as part of frond elongation. However, cytokinesis also occurs regularly in these cells when a new periclinal wall is deposited at about 30% of the cell length from the apical end. The newly formed distal cells are anucleate and without chloroplasts. Following cytokinesis the tangential walls then break at the thinnest point. The whole process is synchronous in adjoining epidermal cells across large areas of the frond surface, and this layer dehisces from the thallus. This is the only known plant or algal system in which cytokinesis regularly occurs in the absence of mitosis. We consider this process a novel form of programmed cell death.

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The occurrence of Laminarionema elsbetiae (Ectocarpaceae, Phaeophyceae), as epi-endophyte of Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (Rhodymeniales, Rhodophyta), described from Santa Isabel, Rawson, Argentina. L. elsbetiae grows in the host tissues forming epi-endophytic relationship in the epidermal, cortical and medullar layers. Epiphytic thalli of L. elsbetiae were unbranched filaments emerging from hostis surface. Reproductive structures of L. elsbetiae on the host were absent. On the contrary, free cultured individuals formed different reproductive structures. Macrozoosporangia containing a single large motile zoospore originated from vegetative cells, they were conical to cylindrical in shape, 30-50 μm in length and 18-20 μm in wide. Uniseriate plurilocular zoosporangia were cylindrical shape, 40 μm in length and 10-13 μm in wide. Sexual fusion was not seen. In mixed cultures of L. elsbetiae with R. pseudopalmata fronds, L. elsbetiae infected the host, grew as in natural host and, formed macrosporangia between host subcortical cells. Gametophytes of L. elsbetiae were filaments with diffuse growth, branched with a branch pattern alternate or opposite. Gametangia were plurilocular, uni or biseriate and lateral. When mature they contained 2 to 6 isogametes. The presence L. elsbetiae on R. pseudopalmata could be defined as an epi-endophytic relationship. The percentage of infection of R. pseudopalmata thalli by L. elsbetiae was 34%.A25% of the infected thalli presented a low, non-symptomatic level infection, whereas a 62% and a 13% of them exhibited respectively moderate and high indexes of infection.

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8Cryopreserved Marine Microalgae Grown Using Different Freezing Methods

저자 : Joo Yeon Youn , Sung Bum Hur

발행기관 : 한국조류학회 간행물 : ALGAE 24권 4호 발행 연도 : 2009 페이지 : pp. 257-265 (9 pages)

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Marine microalgae are a key diet component in finfish and shellfish aquaculture. Cryopreservation of the microalgae is suggested by many other studies as the best method for long-term storage. To test cryopreservation efficacy, 19 taxas of marine microalgal species were examined. In the first experiment we compared dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) and glycerol, which are most widely used as cryoprotectant agents (CPAs). The cryopreservation comprised two freezing procedures. Firstly, the samples containing the CPAs were kept at 4℃ for 10 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196℃). Secondly, samples containing CPAs were pre-cooled (-1℃ min-1) to -80℃ before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Most of the species were successfully cryopreserved using Me2SO, whereas the Prasinophyceae (T. striata and T. suecica) were successfully cryopreserved using glycerol. In general, the cooling method had no influence on the survival of the microalgae except in the case of the Tetraselmis species. In the second experiment, the cultured solution was divided before cryopreservation into concentrated and non-concentrated groups to identify the effect of cell density during cryopreservation. After 12 months of storage, the samples were again divided into centrifugation and non-centrifugation groups to learn the effect of Me2SO on the culture. Viability and growth of the microalgae were not influenced by cell density or the centrifugal removal of the Me2SO after thawing.

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