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Mycobiology update

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수록정보
수록범위 : 28권1호(2000)~48권5호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 1,120
Mycobiology
48권5호(2020년 10월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

1Rediscovery of Seven Long-Forgotten Species of Peronospora and Plasmopara (Oomycota)

저자 : Jae Sung Lee , Hyeon-dong Shin , Young-joon Choi

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 331-340 (10 pages)

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The family Peronosporaceae, an obligate biotrophic group of Oomycota, causes downy mildew disease on many cultivated and ornamental plants such as beet, cucumber, grape, onion, rose, spinach, and sunflower. To investigate the diversity of Peronosporaceae species in Korea, we performed morphological analysis for dried plant herbariums with downy mildew infections by two largest genera, Peronospora and Plasmopara. As a result, it was confirmed that there are five species of Peronospora and two species of Plasmopara, which have been so far unrecorded in Korea, as well as rarely known in the world; Pl. angustiterminalis (ex Xanthium strumarium), Pl. siegesbeckiae (ex Siegesbeckia glabrescens), P. chenopodii-ambrosioidis (ex Chenopodium ambrosioides), P. chenopodii-ficifolii (ex Chenopodium ficifolium), P. clinopodii (ex Clinopodium cf. vulgare), P. elsholtziae (ex Elsholtzia ciliata), and P. lathyrina (ex Lathyrus japonicus). In addition, their phylogenetic relationship was inferred by molecular sequence analysis of ITS, LSU rDNA, and cox2 mtDNA. By rediscovering the seven missing species and barcoding their DNA sequences, this study provides valuable insights into the diversity and evolutionary studies of downy mildew pathogens.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

2A New Species of Thelonectria and a New Record of Cephalotrichum hinnuleum from Gunwi and Ulleungdo in Korea

저자 : Kallol Das , Young-hyun You , Seung-yeol Lee , Hee-young Jung

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 341-350 (10 pages)

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Three fungal strains belonging to the class Sordariomycetes were isolated from soils collected from Gyeongsangbuk-do in Korea. They were identified as Cephalotrichum hinnuleum (UD CT 1-3-3 and KNU-19GWF1) and Thelonectria chlamydospora sp. nov. (UD ST 1-2-1). T. chlamydospora sp. nov. was morphologically identical to T. truncata, but its specific macroconidial dimensions, lower number of septations, and chlamydospore diameter render it distinct from the strains of the genus Thelonectria. The strains UD CT 1-3-3 and KNU- 19GWF1 were developed flat, velvety to felty, and golden gray to brown-gray after 14 days of incubation at 25 ℃ on PDA. These strains were produced polyblastic conidiogenous cells and conidia were pale brown to brown, smooth, thin-walled, subglobose to ellipsoidal, arranged in chains, and the diameters of 6.7-9.0×3.7-5.1 μm. The strains were also confirmed by using the multi-locus genes using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, partial large subunit (LSU), translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1-α), b-tubulin (TUB2), and actin (ACT) genes. This is the discovery of T. chlamydospora sp. nov. and Cephalotrichum hinnuleum, a new record from Korea.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

3Fungal Clusters and Their Uniqueness in Geographically Segregated Wetlands: A Step Forward to Marsh Conservation for a Wealth of Future Fungal Resources

저자 : Jong Myong Park , Ji Won Hong , Woong Lee , Byoung-hee Lee , Young-hyun You

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 351-363 (13 pages)

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Here, we investigated fungal microbiota in the understory root layer of representative wellconserved geographically segregated natural wetlands in the Korean Peninsula. We obtained 574,143 quality fungal sequences in total from soil samples in three wetlands, which were classified into 563 operational taxonomic units (OTU), 5 phyla, 84 genera. Soil texture, total nitrogen, organic carbon, pH, and electrical conductivity of soil were variable between geographical sites. We found significant differences in fungal phyla distribution and ratio, as well as genera variation and richness between the wetlands. Diversity was greater in the Jangdo islands wetland than in the other sites (Chao richness/Shannon/Simpson's for wetland of the Jangdo islands: 283/6.45/0.97>wetland of the Mt. Gariwang primeval forest: 169/1.17/0.22>wetland of the Hanbando geology: 145/4.85/0.91), and this variance corresponded to the confirmed number of fungal genera or OTUs (wetlands of Jangdo islands: 42/283>of Mt. Gariwang primeval forest: 32/169>of the Hanbando geology: 25/145). To assess the uniqueness of the understory root layer fungus taxa, we analyzed fungal genera distribution. We found that the percentage of fungal genera common to two or three wetland sites was relatively low at 32.3%, while fungal genera unique to each wetland site was 67.7% of the total number of identified fungal species. The Jangdo island wetland had higher fungal diversity than did the other sites and showed the highest level of uniqueness among fungal genera (Is. Jangdo wetland: 34.5% > wetland of Mt. Gariwang primeval forest: 28.6% > wetland of the Hanbando geology: 16.7%).

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4Comparison of Soil Higher Fungal Communities between Dead and Living Abies koreana in Mt. Halla, the Republic of Korea

저자 : Chang Sun Kim , Jong Won Jo , Hyen Lee , Young-nam Kwag , Sung Eun Cho , Seung Hwan Oh

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 364-372 (9 pages)

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To improve our understanding of the relationship between soil higher fungi (belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and Abies koreana, we surveyed A. koreana soil fungal communities in a forest in Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, Korea by next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq). To confirm the soil higher fungal communities, we collected two types of soils from a defined plot: soils with dead (AKDTs) and living A. koreana (AKLTs), respectively. Soil fungi were classified into 2 phyla, 19 classes, 64 orders, 133 families, 195 genera, and 229 OTUs (895,705 sequence reads). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed significantly different soil higher fungal communities between AKDTs and AKLTs (p<.05). In addition, the saprophyte composition was significantly affected by A. koreana status (p<.05). The proportion of the mycorrhizal Clavulina spp. was different between soils with AKDTs and AKLTs, suggesting that Clavulina spp. may be a crucial soil fungal species influencing A. koreana. This study will lead to a better understanding of the ecological status of A. koreana in Mt. Halla. In addition, this study could be useful for the conservation and management of A. koreana habitats.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

5Comparative Genomics Platform and Phylogenetic Analysis of Fungal Laccases and Multi-Copper Oxidases

저자 : Jiayao Wu , Jaeyoung Choi , Fred O. Asiegbu , Yong-hwan Lee

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 373-382 (10 pages)

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Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2), a group of multi-copper oxidases (MCOs), play multiple biological functions and widely exist in many species. Fungal laccases have been extensively studied for their industrial applications, however, there was no database specially focused on fungal laccases. To provide a comparative genomics platform for fungal laccases, we have developed a comparative genomics platform for laccases and MCOs (http://laccase.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/). Based on protein domain profiles of characterized sequences, 3,571 laccases were predicted from 690 genomes including 253 fungi. The number of putative laccases and their properties exhibited dynamic distribution across the taxonomy. A total of 505 laccases from 68 genomes were selected and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. As a result, four clades comprised of nine subclades were phylogenetically grouped by their putative functions and analyzed at the sequence level. Our work would provide a workbench for putative laccases mainly focused on the fungal kingdom as well as a new perspective in the identification and classification of putative laccases and MCOs.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

6Alterations in Growth and Morphology of Ganoderma lucidum and Volvariella volvaceae in Response to Nanoparticle Supplementation

저자 : Swarnjeet Singh , Kamil Kuca , Anu Kalia

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 383-391 (9 pages)

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Use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several commercial products has led to emergence of novel contaminants of air, soil and water bodies. The NPs may exhibit greater ecotoxicity due to nano-scale dependent properties over their bulk counterparts. The present investigation explores the effect of in vitro supplementation of TiO2, silica and silver NPs on radial growth and ultrastructural changes in the hyphae and spores of two mushroom genera, Ganoderma lucidum and Volvariella volvaceae. A concentration dependent decrease in radial growth on NP amended potato dextrose agar medium was recorded. However, in comparison to control, there was decrease in radial diameter on supplementation with TiO2 NPs while an increase was recorded for silica and silver NPs amendments as compared to their bulk salts at same concentrations after 48 h of incubation. Optical microscopy studies showed decrease in the number of spores while increase in spore diameter and thinning of hyphal diameter on NPs supplementation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fungal growth showed presence of deflated and oblong spores in two fruiting strains of Ganoderma while Volvariella exhibited decreased sporulation. Further, hyphal thinning and branching was recorded in response to NP amendments in both the test mushrooms. Enhancement of protein content was observed on NP compared to bulk supplementation for all cultures, concentrations and hours of incubation except for TiO2 NPs. Likewise, bulk and NP supplementations (at 100mg L-1) resulted in enhanced laccase activity with occurrence of laccase specific protein bands on SDS-PAGE analysis.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

7Characterization of Soil Microorganism from Humus and Indigenous Microorganism Amendments

저자 : Umair Jan , Rui Feiwen , Jan Masood , Se Chul Chun

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 392-398 (7 pages)

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This study was conducted to understand the dynamics of microbial communities of soil microorganisms, and their distribution and abundance in the indigenous microorganisms (IMOs) manipulated from humus collected from the forest near the crop field. The soil microorganisms originated from humus and artificially cultured microbial-based soil amendments were characterized by molecular and biochemical analyses. The bacterial population (2×106~13×106 CFU/g sample) was approximately 100-fold abundant than the fungal population (2×104~8×104 CFU/g sample). The 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analyses showed that the bacterial and fungal communities in humus and IMOs were mainly composed of Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and Trichoderma and Aspergillus species, respectively. Some of the bacterial isolates from the humus and IMOs showed strong inhibitory activity against soil-borne pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These bacteria also showed the siderophore production activity as well as phosphate solubilizing activity, which are requisite traits for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. These results suggest that humus and IMOs could be a useful resource for sustainable agriculture.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

8Novel Antihypertension Mechanism of β-Glucan by Corin and ANP-Mediated Natriuresis in Mice

저자 : Sun Jung Lee , Dong Hee Lee , Ha Won Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 399-409 (11 pages)

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Many of the β-glucans are known to have antihypertensive activities, but, except for angiotensin- converting enzyme II inhibition, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Corin is an atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-converting enzyme. Activated corin cleaves pro-ANP to ANP, which regulates water-sodium balance and lowers blood pressure. Here, we reported a novel antihypertensive mechanism of β-glucans, involved with corin and ANP in mice. We showed that multiple oral administrations of β-glucan induced the expression of corin and ANP, and also increased natriuresis in mice. Microarray analysis showed that corin gene expression was only upregqaulated in mice liver by multiple, not single, oral administrations of the β-glucan fraction of Phellinus baumii (BGF). Corin was induced in liver and kidney tissues by the β-glucans from zymosan and barley, as well as by BGF. In addition to P. baumii, β-glucans from two other mushrooms, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum, also induced corin mRNA expression in mouse liver. ELISA immunoassays showed that ANP production was increased in liver tissue by all the β-glucans tested, but not in the heart and kidney. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly increased by treatment with β-glucans in the order of BGF, zymosan, and barley, both in 1% normal and 10% high-sodium diets. In conclusion, we found that the oral administration of β-glucans could induce corin expression, ANP production, and sodium excretion in mice. Our findings will be helpful for investigations of β-glucans in corin and ANP-related fields, including blood pressure, salt-water balance, and circulation.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

9Experimental Analysis of Interactions Among Saprotrophic Fungi from A Phosphorous-Poor Desert Oasis in the Chihuahuan Desert

저자 : Constanza Marini-macouzet , Luis Muñoz , Aldo Gonzalez-rubio , Luis E. Eguiarte , Valeria Souza , Patricia Velez

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 410-417 (8 pages)

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Fungal ecological interactions play a key role in structuring community assemblages. These associations may involve both antagonistic and synergistic relationships, which are commonly influenced by abiotic factors such as nutrient conditions. However, information for extreme, oligotrophic systems remain poor. Herein, interactions among key members of the aquatic transient fungal community (Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., and Coprinellus micaceus) of a low-nutrient freshwater system in the Cuatro Ci_enegas Basin, Mexico were studied. Pairwise interaction bioassays were explored in vitro under different nutrient conditions, including carbohydrates-rich, carbohydrates and amino peptides-rich, and low nutrients. Our results indicated that antagonistic patterns prevail among the studied taxa. However, nutrient- dependent changes were observed in Cladosporium sp. shifting to synergy under carbohydrates- rich conditions, suggesting changes in the fungal community composition as a result of nutrient enrichment. Remarkably, our findings contrast with previous work demonstrating mainly synergistic interactions between our tested fungal isolates and co-occurring autochthonous bacteria (Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio sp.) under low-nutrient conditions. This observation may indicate that bacteria and fungi exhibit distinct community-level responses, driven by nutrient conditions. This contributes to the knowledge of fungal community dynamics and interspecific interactions in an oligotrophic ecosystem, highlighting the relevance of nutrient-based shifts and antagonistic interactions in ecosystem dynamics.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

10Occurrence of Cercospora Leaf Spot Caused by Cercospora cf. flagellaris on Melon in Korea

저자 : Mi-jeong Park , Chang-gi Back , Jong-han Park

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 5호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 418-422 (5 pages)

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In 2016, a cercosporoid fungus was found from leaf spot symptoms on melon in Korea. The fungus isolated from the plant was identified based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of five genes (ITS rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α, actin, calmodulin, and histone H3). The fungal isolate was found to be pathogenic to melon. The results confirm that the fungus associated with leaf spot on melon was Cercospora cf. flagellaris. This is the first report of Cercospora cf. flagellaris causing Cercospora leaf spot on melon in Korea.

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