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Mycobiology update

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Mycobiology
48권6호(2020년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

1Penicillium from Rhizosphere Soil in Terrestrial and Coastal Environments in South Korea

저자 : Myung Soo Park , Jun Won Lee , Sung Hyun Kim , Ji-hyun Park , Young-hyun You , Young Woon Lim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 431-442 (12 pages)

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Penicillium, the most common genus plays an important ecological role in various terrestrial and marine environments. However, only a few species have been reported from rhizosphere soil. As part of a project to excavate Korean indigenous fungi, we investigated rhizosphere soil of six plants in the forest (terrestrial habitat) and sand dunes (coastal habitat) and focused on discovering Penicillium species. A total of 64 strains were isolated and identified as 26 Penicillium species in nine sections based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of b-tubulin and calmodulin. Although this is a small-scale study in a limited rhizosphere soil, eight unrecorded species and four potential new species have been identified. In addition, most Penicillium species from rhizosphere soil were unique to each plant. Penicillium halotolerans, P. scabrosum, P. samsonianum, P. jejuense, and P. janczewskii were commonly isolated from rhizosphere soil. Eight Penicillium species, P. aurantioviolaceum, P. bissettii, P. cairnsense, P. halotolerans, P. kananaskense, P. ortum, P. radiatolobatum, and P. verhagenii were recorded for the first time in Korea. Here, we provide the detailed morphological description of these unrecorded species.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

2Two New Lichen Species, Thelopsis ullungdoensis and Phylloblastia gyeongsangbukensis from Korea

저자 : Josef P. Halda , Soon-ok Oh , Dong Liu , Beeyoung Gun Lee , Sergey Y. Kondratyuk , László Lőkös , Jung-shin Park , Jung-jae Woo , Jae-seoun Hur

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 443-449 (7 pages)

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Two new species, Thelopsis ullungdoensis and Phylloblastia gyeongsangbukensis are described from Ullung-Do (Island), South Korea. The closest relatives from Europe and Korea are epiphytic Thelopsis flaveola which differs by their immersed or semi-immersed yellow ascomata, ascospores without halo and their habitat of smooth bark (mainly Fagus) in humid and cold climates. Thelopsis gangwondoensis differs by its bigger semi-immersed ascomata (600-700 mm in diam.), oblong halonate ascospores (8-12×6-8 mm) and its habitat of smooth bark of deciduous trees. P. gyeongsangbukensis differs from its relatives within the genus in having 5-septate ascospores (22-266-8 mm), semi-immersed, subglobose ascomata with a flattened top (250-400 mm) and a thin, matt, uneven gray-brown to gray-green continuous thallus without isidia.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

3Taxonomy of Arthrinium minutisporum sp. nov., Pezicula neosporulosa, and Acrocalymma pterocarpi: New Records from Soil in Korea

저자 : Kallol Das , Seung-yeol Lee , Hyo-won Choi , Ahn-heum Eom , Young-je Cho , Hee-young Jung

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 450-463 (14 pages)

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The strains 17E-042, 17E-039, and NC13-171 belong to Ascomycota and were isolated from soil collected from Sancheong-gun and Yeongam-gun, Korea. The strain 17E-042 produced white mycelial colonies that developed a sienna color with a round margin on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and the reverse side developed a light sienna color. Morphologically, this strain was similar to the strains of Arthrinium phragmites and A. hydei, but the shorter conidial size of the newly identified strain (17E-042) was distinct. The strain 17E-039 produced macroconidia that were pale yellow to orange-brown, elongated-ellipsoid to oblong, round at both ends, primarily straight but sometimes slightly curved, 0-septate, thin-walled, and filled with numerous droplets, having diameters of 20.4-34.3×8.0-12.0 lm. And the strain NC13-171 formed hyaline to light brown chlamydospores, solitary or in a chain. Multigene phylogenetic analyses were conducted using sequence data obtained from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, 28S rDNA large subunit (LSU), b-tubulin (TUB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-a), and RNA polymerase II large subunit (RPB2) genes. The results of molecular phylogeny, the detailed descriptions and illustrations of each species strongly support our proposal that these strains from soil in Korea be designated as Arthrinium minutisporum sp. nov. and two new records of Pezicula neosporulosa and Acrocalymma pterocarpi.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4The Genus Acervus from Southwestern China and Northern Thailand

저자 : Ming Zeng , Qi Zhao , Eleni Gentekaki , Kevin D. Hyde , Yongchang Zhao

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 464-475 (12 pages)

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Acervus (Pyronemataceae, Pezizales) is a saprobic genus in Pezizomycetes, characterized by colored apothecia, subcylindrical to cylindrical asci and guttulate ascospores. We collected four Acervus samples from China and Thailand. Descriptions and illustrations are introduced for all fresh samples. One new record of A. globulosus from Thailand, one new species, A. rufus, two known species, A. epispartius and A. stipitatus from China are reported. Phylogenetic analysis based on five genes, the large subunit rRNA (LSU), the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (tef1-a), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb1), and the small subunit rRNA (SSU), revealed the distinct position of the new species. The new species is set apart by its red apothecia. A key to Acervus species is also given.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

5Taxonomic Study of the Genus Pholiota (Strophariaceae, Basidiomycota) in Korea

저자 : Jun Won Lee , Myung Soo Park , Ji-hyun Park , Yoonhee Cho , Changmu Kim , Chang Sun Kim , Jong Won Jo , Young Woon Lim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 476-483 (8 pages)

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The genus Pholiota (Strophariaceae, Basidiomycota) is made up of wood-rotting saprotrophic mushrooms characterized by a yellow or brown pileus with scales and/or slimy, and by a brownish smooth spore with a germ pore. However, these features are not enough to distinguish its species, or separate the genus Pholiota from other brown-spored wood-rotting genera such as Hypholoma and Stropharia. Although internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencebased identification has improved identification accuracy for species of Pholiota, most Pholiota species in Korea are reported based on morphological features. To evaluate the taxonomy of Pholiota species, we investigated 62 specimens collected from 1999 to 2019 in Korea using ITS sequence analysis and morphological observation. Twelve of the 16 recorded Pholiota species in Korea were identified. While eight species were clearly separated, the ITS analysis did not distinguish three in the Pholiota adiposa complex. Therefore, further investigation is required to distinguish these three species. ITS sequences deposited in GenBank confirm that P. highlandensis exists in Korea. The presence of the other four Pholiota species could not be confirmed through specimens or sequence information in GenBank. A taxonomic key and the ITS sequence data for Korean Pholiota species are included and can be good baselines for further research on Pholiota taxonomy and diversity.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

6Screening of Endophytic Fungal Isolates Against Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae Causing Oak Wilt Disease in Korea

저자 : Manh Ha Nguyen , Joo Hyun Yong , Han Jung Sung , Jong Kyu Lee

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 484-494 (11 pages)

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Oak wilt disease caused by Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae has emerged obviously in Korea. We selected antifungal isolates against R. quercus-mongolicae among 368 endophytic fungal isolates from different parts of oak and pine trees. The experiment was conducted in the primary and secondary screenings by dual culture test. The antifungal activity of the selected isolates was assessed in culture filtrate test based on the inhibition rates in mycelial growth, sporulation, and spore germination of oak wilt fungus. Five isolates, E089, E199, E282, E409 and E415, showed strong antifungal activity in culture filtrate test, and their antifungal activity decreased on the culture media supplemented with heated culture filtrate. Higher mycelial growth inhibitions on the unheated media were recorded in E409 (Colletotrichum acutatum), E089 (Daldinia childiae), E415 (Alternaria alternata) and E199 (Daldinia childiae) with the inhibition rates of 79.0%, 70.1%, 68.9% and 64.5%, respectively. These isolates also had the higher sporulation inhibitions on unheated media with the rates of 96.8%, 84.2%, 82.8% and 80.5%, respectively. The spore germination of the oak wilt fungus was completely inhibited by E282 (Nectria balsamea) on both unheated and heated media. These results showed that a higher number of potent antifungal isolates against oak wilt fungus was isolated from the petiole compared to the other parts. This study could contribute to the development of biological control approaches for the management of oak wilt disease caused by R. quercus-mongolicae.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

7Occurrence and Characterization of Leaf Spot Caused by Septoria melissae on Lemon Balm in Korea

저자 : Seon-ah Yang , In-young Choi , Ho-jong Ju , Kui-jae Lee , Victor Galea , Hyeon-dong Shin

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 495-500 (6 pages)

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Leaf spot on lemon balm is frequently observed in Korea, causing considerable damage to crops. In 2014 and 2015, the occurrence of leaf spot was observed in several production greenhouses at Suwon, Gongju, and Namwon in Korea. Symptoms on lower leaves initially developed as small, distinct, discolored lesions, which enlarged progressively turning into dark brown, angular spots surrounded by purplish-brown margins. Based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of actin (ACT), translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF-1a), internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 28S nrDNA (LSU), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), the fungus associated with the lemon balm leaf spot was determined as Septoria melissae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of lemon balm leaf spot caused by S. melissae in Asia as well as in Korea.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

8Xylanolytic and Ethanologenic Potential of Gut Associated Yeasts from Different Species of Termites from India

저자 : Snigdha Tiwari , Rameshwar Avchar , Riya Arora , Vikram Lanjekar , Prashant K. Dhakephalkar , Sumit S. Dagar , Abhishek Baghela

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 501-511 (11 pages)

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Xylophagous termites are capable of degrading lignocellulose by symbiotic gut microorganisms along with the host's indigenous enzymes. Therefore, the termite gut might be a potential niche to obtain natural yeasts with celluloytic, xylanolytic and ethanologenic traits required for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we cultured 79 yeasts from three different termites viz. Coptotermes heimi, Odontotermes javanicus and Odontotermes obesus. After suitable screening methods, we identified 53 yeasts, which belonged to 10 genera and 16 different species of both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts. Most yeasts in the present study represent their first-ever isolation from the termite gut. Representative strains of identified yeasts were evaluated for their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and ethanologenic abilities. None of the isolates showed cellulase activity; 22 showed xylanolytic activity, while six produced substantial quantities of ethanol. Among xylanolytic cultures, Pseudozyma hubeiensis STAG 1.7 and Hannaella pagnoccae STAG 1.14 produced 1.31 and 1.17 IU of xylanase. Among ethanologenic yeasts, the strains belonging to genera Candida and Kodamaea produced high amount of ethanol. Overall, highest ethanol level of 4.42 g/L was produced by Candida tropicalis TS32 using 1% glucose, which increased up to 22.92 g/L at 35 ℃, pH 4.5 with 5% glucose. Fermentation of rice straw hydrolysate gave 8.95 g/l of ethanol with a yield of 0.42 g/g using the strain TS32. Our study highlights the gut of wood-feeding termites as a potential source of diverse yeasts that would be useful in the production of xylanase and bioethanol.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

9Beneficial Effect of Cordyceps militaris on Exercise Performance via Promoting Cellular Energy Production

저자 : Eunhyun Choi , Junsang Oh , Gi-ho Sung

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 512-517 (6 pages)

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Cordyceps militaris has been reported to the diverse pharmaceutical effects including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and bacteria or virus infection. However, the effect of C. militaris on exercise performance has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of C. militaris on exercise performance. To evaluate exercise performance, we prepared C. militaris ethyl acetate extract (CMEE) and conducted grip strength tests every week after administration. Additionally, blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment for biochemical analysis. The administration of CMEE slightly increased grip strength, and this result was similar to the red ginseng treated group. According to the result of biochemical analysis, CMEE had an effect on the biomarkers related to ATP generation pathway but had little influence on the muscle fatigue related biomarkers. Therefore, C. militaris has the possibility of improving exercise performance, which could be associated with the increase in ATP production rather than the decrease in muscle fatigue during exercise.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

10Macruropyxis fraxini on Fraxinus rhynchophylla: Confirmation in the Korean Peninsula after 82 Years and the First Record in South Korea

저자 : Bok-nam Jung , Young-joon Choi , Hyeon-dong Shin , Ji-hyun Park

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 48권 6호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 518-521 (4 pages)

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Macruropyxis fraxini has been recorded on several species of Fraxinus in China, Japan, Russia (Far East), and North Korea since its first recorded observation as a rust fungus on F. rhynchophylla in Jilin, China, in 1899. In the Korean Peninsula, the rust fungus was first recorded on F. rhynchophylla in 1935, based on four specimens collected at Mt. Kumgangsan, Gangwondo Province, in the North Korean territory. We confirmed this rust in the Korean Peninsula after 82 years. The rust fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. This is the first record of M. fraxini in South Korea.

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