간행물

운동과학 update

Official Journal of the Korea Exercise Science Academy

  • : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회)
  • : 예체능분야  >  체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 한국운동과학회(~1995) → 운동과학(1996~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 5권1호(1996)~29권4호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 1,006
운동과학
29권4호(2020년 11월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1근거기반 운동의학 시대의 도래

저자 : 이해동 ( Hae-dong Lee ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 325-328 (4 pages)

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2폼롤러를 이용한 자가근막이완이 인체근막시스템과 심혈관계기능에 미치는 영향에 대한 고찰

저자 : 이천옥 ( Cheonok Lee ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 329-338 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention used to improve flexibility and restore skeletal muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments and soft-tissue extensibility. However, the mechanism about the effects of SMR on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness and arterial stiffness has not been elucidated. The purpose of this review is to provide basic knowledge for the mechanism about the effects of SMR from a functional and anatomical perspective.
METHODS: In this review, we summarized previous studies investigating the effects of SMR which were associated with the human fascial system on flexibility, delayed onset of muscle soreness, arterial stiffness and autonomic nervous system (ANS).
RESULTS: SMR with a foam roller can improve flexibility by increasing blood flow and circulation to the soft tissues. Foam rolling-related mechanisms to increase range of motion or reduce pain include the activation of cutaneous and fascial mechanoreceptors and interstitial afferent nerves that modulate sympathetic/parasympathetic activation as well as the activation of global pain modulatory systems and reflex-induced reductions in muscle and myofascial tone. In addition, SMR with a foam roller may improve arterial stiffness, which was associated with increased circulating level of nitric oxide induced by elevated shear stress on the walls of the blood vessel.
CONCLUSIONS: SMR using a foam roller improves flexibility by relaxing tension in skeletal muscles or fascia and may help to improve arterial stiffness and the function of the ANS. We suggest that SMR using a foam roller may help to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease as a new alternative method.

KCI등재

3COVID-19 팬데믹과 운동중재에 관한 분석

저자 : 지진구 ( Jin-gu Ji ) , 김귀백 ( Kwi Baek Kim ) , 곽이섭 ( Yi Sub Kwak )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 339-346 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) was first reported in China at the end of 2019. COVID-19 infected people increased and spreads COVID-19 rapidly across the globe. Finally, this outbreak turn into a pandemic and yields national crisis and finally to endemic. Most individual are exposed to stressful situation because of unknown duration of COVID-19. Most of all, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer (NK) cell, T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID- 19 incidence. However, all this variables were concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention, therefore, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and physical activity status.
METHODS: PubMed database was searched from December 2019 to August 2020 using predefined search terms “COVID-19”, “exercise”, and “immunity”.Based on reference search, more than 65 articles were identified whereas 50 papers (36 references) met the inclusion criteria and were well connected with COVID-19 and physical exercise with immunity.We analyzed the connections between exercise and COVID-19 with many variables, and dealtabout COVID-19 prevention and exercise-intervention programs in the main text.
RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, obesity, metabolic syndromes, reduced respiratory muscle mass, lowered immunity such as decreased natural killer cell and T cell activity were significantly correlated with the COVID-19 infection.However, all this variables were also concerned with exercise habit and exercise-intervention.Regular physical activity have shown to be an effective prescription for obesity, many metabolic syndromes and good immunity. However, physical inactivity and chronic metabolic syndromes were associated with reduced immunity such as reduced NK cell activity, uncontrolled T cell immunity, decreased respiratory immunity and even URTIs (upper respiratory track infection) for elite athletes. Multicomponent exercise program is considered especially for the elderly people, 5 days per week, 40-60% HRR (heart rate reserve) intensity, and 150-300 minutes aerobic and resistance training (200-400 minutes/week under the quarantine period) were recommended. Moreover, all form of psychological support also to increase immunity against COVID-19.More mechanism studies are urgently needed to determine which mode and which duration exercises are best most suited, and effective for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

KCI등재

4PCSK9과 LDL-C: 운동의 역할

저자 : 진재호 ( Jaeho Jin ) , 조우연 ( Wooyeon Jo ) , 노지헌 ( Ji Heon Noh ) , 이상기 ( Sang Ki Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 347-351 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a pivotal regulator of low lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL receptor (LDLR) metabolism, and the interest in PCSK9 has increased in cardiovascular diseases. Exercise reduces blood LDL-C via PCSK9-LDLR pathway in the liver and the vasculature. However, the mechanism of exercise-induced inhibition of PCSK is unclear. The aim of this review is to describe the role of exercise on PCSK9-LDLR axis in cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS: This study review 34 previous studies focusing on the effect of exercise on PCSK9 in the human and animal.
RESULTS: The effects of exercise and lifestyle intervention on hepatic and circulating PCSK9 are controversial. However, exercise consistently increases hepatic LDLR, and inhibits atherosclerosis via suppression of PCSK9 and LOX-1 in atherosclerotic region.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though experimental data are still very limited, exercise training can improves blood LDL-C via inhibition of PCSK9 and enhancement of LDLR in liver and vasculature. The study of exercise on PCSK9 are urgently needed.

KCI등재

5과거의 근력훈련 경험이 장기간 훈련중단 후 재훈련시 흰쥐 가자미근의 횡단면적과 단백질 함량에 미치는 영향

저자 : 홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim ) , 이석호 ( Sukho Lee ) , 김기정 ( Kijeong Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 352-358 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that previous strength training episodes favorably contribute to muscular hypertrophic adaptations in rat soleus muscle after long-term detraining and retraining in rats.
METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON), detraining (DT), strength training (ST), and retraining (RT). The strength training was a regular bout of ladder climbing exercise that consisted of three sets of five repetitions and three days per week for eight weeks. A cylinder containing weights was loaded to the bottom of each rat's tail. The weights carried during each training session were initially 50% of body weight and progressively increased by 10% per session. Rats in the DT underwent twenty weeks of detraining periods immediately after eight weeks of strength training. Rats in the ST were aged matched to the RT group and underwent eight weeks of strength training at the same duration with the RT group. Rats in the RT were conducted to the resistance training for eight weeks following the detraining period. Soleus muscles were collected at the end of the training episodes to examine alterations in cross-sectional area and protein contents.
RESULTS: ST showed a significant increase in cross-sectional area of the rat soleus muscle, compared with CON. It was interestingly demonstrated that RT markedly elicited hypertrophy of soleus muscle, compared with all other groups. It was supported that RT-induced hypertrophy was related to increased myofibrillar protein contents of the soleus muscle.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although prolonged training cessation occurs previous strength training episodes have a positive impact on restoring muscular contractile properties and hypertrophy after retraining.

KCI등재

6Cardiac Autonomic Responses and Adaptation to Repeated Bouts of Eccentric Exercise

저자 : Choun-sub Kim , Min-ghyu Sun , Maeng-kyu Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 359-367 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The current study was performed to examine the effects of acute eccentric resistance exercise (ERE) on heart rate variability (HRV) and to determine whether cardiac autonomic regulation adapts to the repeated bout effect.
METHODS: Isokinetic eccentric exercise consisted of five sets of six maximal contractions of the knee extensor with an angular velocity of 90°/second. College-aged men (n=11) underwent two sessions of ERE with a 3-week interval. Muscle damage indicators such as the range of motion (ROM) and muscle echo intensity (EI) were measured. The post-exercise cardiac autonomic response was assessed by spectral analysis of HRV. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, the normalized unit (nu) for each band power, and the LF-to-HF (LF/HF) ratio were determined. All variables were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise as well as before and immediately after ERE.
RESULTS: The EI and ROM of the rectus femoris changed significantly after the maximal ERE. There was a significant interaction effect between the time and bout for EI. Significant changes in LF and HF nu were observed at 72 (1st ERE) and 96 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. The LF/HF ratio was also significantly increased at 24 (1st ERE) and 72 hours (2nd ERE) after each ERE. However, no interaction effects on changes in the HRV indices were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that acute ERE leads to cardiac autonomic imbalance for a sustained period and that repeated bouts of ERE cannot alleviate cardiac autonomic responses to exercise.

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7Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness and Strength According to the Frailty Level of Female Elderly with Hypertension

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , Min Chul Lee , Tae-bong Jeon , Jun-il Yoo , Jin Sung Park , Hyo Youl Moon , Ji-seok Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 368-376 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise on physical fitness and strength according to their frailty level of the hypertensive female elderly aged over 65.
METHODS: Female elderly subjects (>65 year) with hypertension (n=90) were classified according to their level of frailty (Fr_), and were divided into control group (Ctrl) and exercise group (Ex). Hypertensive female elderly in exercise groups were subjected to 8-week combined exercise of aerobic (stretching and walking) and resistance (elastic band and weight training) exercise twice per week (50 minutes×2 times×8 weeks). Body composition, functional fitness and skeletal muscle strength were evaluated as main variables (Ctrl, n=27; Ex, n=23; Fr_Ctrl, n=17; Fr_Ex, n=23).
RESULTS: Body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose level (include hemoglobin A1c) and blood lipid profile did not interact with the exercise intervention and frailty level. Records of 30-second chair stretch test, two-minute walk test and arm curl increased after exercise intervention regardless of frailty level. The strength of quadriceps femoris increased after exercise intervention regardless of the level of frailty. However, the strength of biceps femoris (p<.001), biceps brachii (p<.05) and triceps brachii (p<.001) was significantly increased in the Fr_Ex compared to pre-intervention of exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: The classification according to the level of frailty in hypertensive female elderly can have a significant effect on the degree of muscle strength improvement by exercise intervention. In addition, this study newly discovered that the improvement of 30-s chair stretch test record in the hypertensive elderly women appeared faster than the improvement of the rapid-gait test record independently of the level of frailty.

KCI등재

8한국 성인에서 상대악력과 제2형 당뇨병 발생률과의 연관성: 한국인 유전체 역학 조사사업 자료를 기반으로

저자 : 윤은선 ( Eun Sun Yoon ) , 박수현 ( Soo Hyun Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 377-384 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: We investigated whether relative handgrip strength (RHS) and change in handgrip strength predicted Type 2 DM incidence in middle-aged and older adults.
METHODS: Total of 29,098 participants (8,609 men and 20,489 women) aged 40-69 who were free of diabetes at the baseline examination drawn from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Urban Health Examinees cohort (KoGES-HEXA), a large prospective population-based study. RHS was assessed with a dynamometer and divided by body mass index. Diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of anti-diabetic medications or measured fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥6.5%. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of Diabetes incidences according to baseline RHS levels and RHS changes.
RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 4 years (49.8±13.3 month), 1,167 (4.0%) participants developed diabetes. Compared with the high RHS group, higher risk of diabetes incidence was observed in low RHS group (men HR=1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.55, women HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.54) after adjusted for age, triglyceride, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, income, education hypertension, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, regular exercise. In addition, compared with the sustained high RHS group, sustained low RHS group showed an increased risk of diabetes incidence (men HR=1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.00, women HR=1.85, 95% CI 1.52-2.24) after adjustment. However, the risk was not statistically significant in increased RHS group (men HR=0.98, 95% CI 0.73-1.31, women HR=1.11, 95% CI 0.85-1.43).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that RHS is independently associated with the risk of incident diabetes in middle and older adults. RHS measurement may be useful to identify individuals at increased risk for diabetes incidence. Maintaining a high level of RHS is important strategies for diabetes prevention among adults.

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9History-Dependence of Muscle Excitation and Oxygenation During Isometric Knee Extension Force Production

저자 : Junkyung Song , Kitae Kim , Sungjun Lee , Jiseop Lee , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 385-393 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study examined the issue of history-dependence on muscle excitation and oxygenation by using surface electromyography (EMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
METHODS: Eight male participants performed isometric knee extension force production tasks that started at four levels of initial force production (30, 40, 60, 70% of maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and commonly converged to the production of 50% of MVC by increasing or decreasing knee extension forces. We quantified the integrated electromyogram (iEMG), total hemoglobin (tHb), and the desaturation rate of muscle tissue (TSISLOPE) of the vastus lateralis and compared the differences in the quantified variables between the experimental conditions.
RESULTS: For the four levels of initial forces production, all the variables showed significant linear relationships with outcome forces. However, the magnitudes of the variables were varied depending on the contraction history at the terminal phase where the identical level of force production (50% of MVC) was required. At the terminal phase, the iEMG was affected by the time history of both mode (e.g., increment or decrement) and magnitude (e.g., 10% or 20% change of MVC), while the tHb and TSISLOPE showed significant differences between the time history of mode only.
CONCLUSIONS: The main result of the current study demonstrates the history-dependence of the changes in physiological demands in muscle activation. In particular, the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation at the same level of force were varied depending on the time history of contraction, which implies the indices of muscle excitation and oxygenation may not be invariant component to specify the levels of outcome forces.

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10초등학생의 스마트폰 사용습관과 척추 만곡 및 목·어깨 통증과의 연관성

저자 : 송문구 ( Mun-ku Song ) , 박지현 ( Ji-hyun Park ) , 공지영 ( Ji-young Kong ) , 강현식 ( Hyun-sik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 간행물 : 운동과학 29권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 394-401 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationships of smartphone usage with spinal curvature and neck or shoulder pain in a sample of school children.
METHODS: Participants were elementary school children (152 boys, 156 girls). Spinal parameters such as trunk inclination (TI), kyphotic angle (KA), and fleche cervical (FC) were measured with a spine and posture analyzer (DIERS Formetric 4D). In addition, smartphone addiction score (SAS), experience of neck or shoulder pain, postural habits, and lifestyle risk factors were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Children were classified as good- and poor-posture group according to cervical postures while using a smartphone and as low, medium, and high-risk group according to the SAS levels. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of pain experience.
RESULTS: With respect to postures, children with poor posture had significantly higher values of TI, FC, and pain experience than children with good posture children. Children with poor posture had a significantly higher risk of neck or shoulder pain (OR=6.51, 95% CI=3.63-11.67, p<.001) compared with children with good posture (OR=1). With respect to the severity of smartphone addiction, there were significant incremental trends in KA, FC, and pain experience according to the SAS-based subgroups (from low to high-risk group). The medium- and high-risk groups had significantly higher risks of neck or shoulder pain (OR=4.77, 95% CI=1.93-11.78, p<.001 and OR=16.51, 95% CI=6.40-42.54, respectively) compared with the low-risk group (OR=1).
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that smartphone addiction and poor posture are two modifiable risk factors in determining the severity of spinal curvature and risk of neck and shoulder pain in school children.

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