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수록정보
수록범위 : 2권1호(1996)~4권1호(2000) |수록논문 수 : 40
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4권1호(2000년 04월) 수록논문
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1Thermal Signatures of Tectonic Fluid Flows

저자 : Valiya M. Hamza

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 4-31 (28 pages)

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Characteristic features of tectonic fluid flows have been examined in the light of available observational data and discussion of simple models suitable for investigating their thermal effects. The emphasis has been on the use of models that can account for the main features discernible in observational records of temperature variations related to tectonic activities. The specific types of flow systems considered include one dimensional sweep flows, channel flows that intersect horizontal aquifers, transient flows giving rise to plume-like movements and flows of finite duration originating from large linear segments of fault planes. Results of model simulations indicate that the presence of seismo-thermal perturbations is not always restricted to zones of active displacements or to hypo-central localities. In cases where tectonic fluids interact with regional flow systems, such perturbations spread over contiguous areas with dimensions comparable to those of local geological formations. Another important result emerging from model studies is the strong dependence of the time scales of decay of perturbations on the characteristics of fluid flow. Thus thermal effects of sweep flows last over much longer periods of time relative to those of the channel flows or plume type movements. Examples are presented illustrating model fits to observational data and its use in obtaining estimates of the magnitude of initial perturbation and the 'age' of the fluid flow event.

2On Local Magnitude Determination in the South Pacific Region

저자 : Kelepi S. Nafi , Avi Shapira

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 32-40 (9 pages)

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Local magnitudes are often based on empirical attenuation functions of the seismic parameters measured on the seismograms (e.g., max. amplitudes, coda duration, spectral level, etc). There are, however, exceptions such as in the case of Tonga, where such procedures are practical due to the lack of data. In this study we tried to define the local magnitude in terms of the estimated seismic moment, where seismic moment estimations are based on short period recordings. We termed the new scale as Mm and equalized it in the range 4.0 < Mm < 5.2 to the body wave magnitudes, mb, which are determined by NEIC. The Mm scale is based on data from the Tonga region, but it might be applicable to other subduction zones in the South Pacific. The same measurement procedures and equations are used to determine the magnitudes of a sample of earthquakes monitored in Vanuatu and in the Solomon Islands and are in agreement with mb determination of NEIC.

3Depth and Yield Dependence of Seismic Source Function of Underground Nuclear Explosion in Salt from Azgir Data

저자 : Ivan O. Kitov

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 41-53 (13 pages)

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Dependence of seismic source function of underground nuclear explosion on depth of burial and yield is investigated. A set of six events in salt with yields from 1.1 to 74 kt conducted within Azgir salt dome (the Pre-Caspian depression) at depths from 161 to 1503 m and measured by portable seismic stations installed by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres of the Russian Academy of Sciences is used. Amplitude and spectral scaling shows strong effects of the depth of burial on seismic efficiency and almost linear dependence of seismic wave amplitude on yield.

4Earthquake Modelling from Deterministic and Stochastic Cellular Automata

저자 : Yuan Gao , Ying Ji , Yong Chen

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 54-61 (8 pages)

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Deterministic and stochastic cellular automata(CA) are utilized in this paper to study the complicated feature of "earthquake" phenomena. Considering about the energy accumulations and energy losses, we do digital modelling for "earthquake" events, then discuss self-organized critical(SOC) state, hierarchy structure and multifractals. A great quantity of events produced from two kinds of CA model evolution rule influence the output of the model very much. The studies suggest that the complexity of earthquake phenomena essentially may be both deterministic and stochastic.

5Variation of Seismic Amplitudes at Near-regional Distances and Accuracy of Seismic Source Function Prediction

저자 : Ivan O. Kitov

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 62-69 (8 pages)

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Variations of seismic amplitude with azimuth are considered on an example of Vega PNE series. The series is characterized by close location of explosions and recordings available at several stations at various azimuths. Geology of the site of Vega is presented by salt dome active tectonics and is very complex even at distances comparable with the explosions spacing. Synthetic seismogram modeling in such conditions demands usage of 3-D velocity and density structure for prediction of about an order of magnitude variation of seismic signal amplitudes at various azimuths.

6Seismic Tectonics in the Northeast of China

저자 : Zhong Yizhang , Gao Changbo

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 70-85 (16 pages)

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Based on available data of seismology and geology we have presented some view on seismic tectonics in the northeast of China. From the viewpoint of geotectonic characteristics or nature, the northeastern China is divided into two geotectonic elements, i.e. south region, and north region. The south region, located in China-Korea platform, has renewed their tectonic movement later on so that in the south region is seismically more active and stronger than in the north region. From the relationship between seismic activity and active structures it can be found that various categories of the active faults are different in the seismic activity. The shallow earthquakes occurring in the crust is related to the variable belts of geophysical field, while the deep earthquakes are constrained in the subduction zone of plates margin. The relatively large earthquakes are mainly distributed along the two sets of active faults striking NNE and NWW is currently undergoing compression of nearly east-west direction, but action direction, but action directions of the stress field are almost identical.

7Finding Faults, Fracture Zones, and Seismotectonics As sociated with Seismicity in the Youngwol Dam Site Area

저자 : So Gu Kim , Seoung Kyu Lee

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 86-106 (21 pages)

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We have surveyed geophysical seismic prospecting near the area of Youngwol Dam site. Youngwol, Pyongchang, Chungsun areas are widely distributed formation of Chosun Supergroup which consists of a Great Limestone Group of Cambro-Ordovician Periods. These formations have been thrusted up from NE to SW. The surface geology of dam site consists of sandstone and shale, the upper and lower boundaries of dam site covered with limestone of Chungsun Formation, dolomite and limestone of Yonghung Formation.
We carried out geophysical seismic prospecting in these areas using various seismic sources (hammer, seisgun). From the result, we have found that thickness and velocity of overburden are 7-9 m and 0.61-0.63 km/sec, respectively, and the second layer consists of sandstones with a thickness of 29-40 m with a velocity of 3.19-3.70 km/sec, and the third layer consists of quartz veins or conglomerates with a high velocity(Vp>5.0 km/sec) at a depth of 38-49 m. Our findings are well consistent with the drilling data of Korea Water Resources Corporation Report (KOWACO, 1997). We have also found the time reduction due to faults and/or fracture zones from the travel time curves at the middle part (60-120 m). The fracture zones and/or faults start below 8 m deep at the dam embankment site.
We may infer that recent microearthquakes in the Youngwol area must be associated with tectonic forces corresponding to many faults in this region. We should also take into account the induced seismicity in the Youngwol area because there are many dams like Soyanggang.
Therefore, it is necessary to perform detailed geophysical prospecting for the sake of safety analysis of the Youngwol Dam construction. Furthermore, the seismic activities of Youngwol, Pyongchang, Chungsun areas are high as compared to other areas in the Kangwon province. In order to find clearly fracture zones and underground blind faults, we propose a high resolution seismic tomography.

8Why Is the Korean Seismicity Not So Severe As the Vicinities Such As NE China, SW Japan, and Sakhalin?

저자 : So Gu Kim , Erdenedalai Lkhasuren

발행기관 : 한국지진연구소 간행물 : SAFE 4권 1호 발행 연도 : 2000 페이지 : pp. 107-114 (8 pages)

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Although the Korean Peninsula is located near the great earthquake regions such as NE China and SW Japan, it has never been in calamitous and catastrophic earthquakes for last 2000 years according to historical and instrumental records. We investigate the low seismicity of Korea based on the hypothesis of the Baikal-Korea Plate (BKP) or Amurian Plate movement which is generated by the Baikal Rift Zone spreading and heading toward primary NW- SE translation with a counter- clockwise rotation. Many disastrous earthquakes of NE China, SW Japan and Sakhalin release large amount of seismic energy along the boundary of the Baikal-Korea Plate. It is significant to compute the released energy of the boundary of the Baikal-Korea Plate compared to the Korean Peninsula in order to estimate the subplate boundary. The total energy releases (1900- 1999) from the major disastrous earthquakes (M≥6.0) along the Baikal- Korea subplate are about 103-104 times as much as the Korean Peninsula (M≥3.0). Especially the Mongolian earthquakes released the largest amount of energy 1025 ergs, while the released energy of the NE China and SW Japan are estimated as 1024 ergs, respectively. The relative displacement movement of GPS also indicates the Baikal- Korea Plate movement around the Korean Peninsula. These factors may indicate that the Korean Peninsula is not located at the plate boundary, but just on a margin of the Baikal- Korea plate which moves Southeastward with the counter clockwise rotation from the Baikal Rift Zone in the NE Asia, therefore there is no enough accumulated strain to generate large earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula, it makes the Korean Peninsula free from the large catastrophic earthquakes.

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