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한국중세사연구 update

The Journal of Korean Medieval History

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1994)~60권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 588
한국중세사연구
60권0호(2020년 02월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

111세기 초 동북아시아 외교 지형의 변화와 고려-거란 관계

저자 : 이미지 ( Lee Mi-ji )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 11-48 (38 pages)

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The postwar negotiation after the Third War of Goryeo and Khitan (1014-1020) prevented serious wars between the two dynasties as the Chuanyuan Treaty (1004) did between Khitan and Song. The two major power of Northeastern Asia, Song and Khitan accomplished to establish stable relations through consistent exchanges of the regular celebrating envoys such as envoys on the New Year's day and envoys on the emperor's birthday. The unique point is that the Khitan empress dowagers were also the official receiver of the celebrations sent by the Song emperors;empress dowager Chengtian (承天太后) who had been the leader of the Khitan court at the Chuanyuan treaty is possibly the one who ignited this incomparable diplomatic practice. The empress dowagers' active roles in the diplomatic scene between two dynasties ended with the case of empress dowager Xuanren (宣仁太后) of the Song who even dispatched envoys to the Khitan under her own title.
At least two significant legacies of many of the Chuanyuan Treaty were disseminated to the Khitan-Goryeo relations. Those are the diplomatic status of the Khitan empress dowager and the consistent practice of sharing celebrations by exchanging regular envoys on the occasions mentioned above.
The Khitan, during the postwar negotiation with the Goryeo in 1022, reduced the number of regular envoys down to twice per year;once on the birthday of the emperor with the New Year's envoy, and once on the birthday of empress dowager. Interestingly there was no empress dowager alive in the Khitan court at that moment. This means that the diplomatic role of the empress dowager Chengtian was so prominent that the post of empress dowager became one of the most diplomatic representatives of the Khitan power. Since she was the one who officially acknowledged the Goryeo- Khitan border settlement in 994 the Goryeo court could urge Khitan to stop under the empress dowager's name whenever they illegally invade the northeastern border of Goryeo.

KCI등재

2유목사회의 특성과 고려-거란 전쟁

저자 : 허인욱 ( Heo In-uk )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 49-79 (31 pages)

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Khitan stressed Goryeo mainly on horse tactics, and in order to overcome the speed battles caused by horses, Goryeo selected the water-based battle, blue-field tactics, and rivers consisting of natural moat as a line of defense to prevent invasion. In the process, Goryeo seems to have understood some of the nomadic social characteristics. The basis for the judgment was that marriage and friendship requests were considered. In particular, friendship was very important in the sense of full subjugation in nomadic society. Goryeo tried to keep his relations with Khitan by requesting friendship or to get married. Of course, although diplomatic relations were resumed at the point where Goryeo called itself a neighboring country and offered a tribute, It was meaningful in that Goryeo understood the characteristics of the Khitan and suggested it as a remedy. It was to save Khitan's face. It can be seen that it is different from the tribute system in relation to Han-Chinese nation. and it will be possible to understand the situation at that time more correctly.

KCI등재

3강감찬과 낙성대에 대한 인식과 평가의 시대적 추이

저자 : 김인호 ( Kim In-ho )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 81-110 (30 pages)

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Kang Gam-chan(姜邯贊) has a historical image as a hero who saved the country from the invasion of the Great. He has been a respected figure in many records since the Joseon Dynasty was created. He is one of sixteen people in Swungweijun(崇義殿). These are all people who have stopped foreign invasion.
『Koryosa』 Kang Gam-chan thermoelectrics are the most basic data. The story that was born is Naksungdae(落星臺) tales. This story shows Kangganchan's ability to study.
Kang Gam-chan is held in Samhyunsa(三賢祠) in the late Joseon Dynasty. Here he is said to have an etiquette. This is according to runners.
And there is a legend that Kang Gam-chan gets rid of tigers. This legend has been around since Joseon Dynasty. Respect for Kang Gam-chan continued in the late Joseon Dynasty. He wrote a hero in a book called 『Haedongmeogjangchon(海東名將傳)』.
After the Korean Empire, Kang Gam-chan appeared in novels, newspapers and magazines. At that time, there was a strong sense of resistance to foreign countries. So Kang Gam-chan received attention. In the case of fiction, various legends were described. Among them are legends about frogs and tigers. This novel became the basic story of the later Great Mansion.
Nakseongdae began to be introduced during the Japanese occupation. In particular, the Dong-A Ilbo reported that Nakseongdae was born by Kang Gam-chan There is a five-story pagoda nearby. Since 1945 the ruins of Kang Gam-chan have been rediscovered. But the idea of ​​a hero who saved the country has not changed.

KCI등재

4북한의 고려-거란 전쟁에 대한 역사인식과 평가-강감찬과 귀주대첩을 중심으로-

저자 : 문경호 ( Mun Gyung-ho )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 111-153 (43 pages)

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This paper classified the trends on studying history in North Korea after Korean independence in 5 eras depending on the political and ideological changes, and analyzed the descriptions related to the war of Goryeo-Khitan appeared at each era, especially on the 3td great victory at Guiju where Gang Gam-chan participated.
The objects were the history books styled for a to z description published officially by North Korea, i.e. 『Joseon Tongsa(朝鮮通史)』 and 『Joseon Junsa(朝鮮全史)』, and the books described in sectional history (Theme history) such as 『History of Anti-invasion Battling of Korea People(朝鮮人民의 反侵略鬪爭史)』 and 『History of Foreign Relations foreign relations of the Korea(朝鮮對外關係史)』. These books show properly in timely manner how the evaluations on the war of Goryeo-Khitan, especially on Gang Gam-chan and the great victory at Guiju have been changed.
It is considered that why North Korea pays attention to Goryeo era out of many eras is related to the history recognition of North Korean historical school and the political scheme to acquire the orthodox of connecting Gojoseon-Goguryeo- Goryeo-North Korea. Especially, it is considered that the reason of remarking Gang Gam-chan particularly is because he had strengthened the position of Goryeo greatly in East Asia by winning the 3rdinvasion of Khitan as a loyal warrior of Goryeo differently with Seo Hee who obtained the Gang dong 6sectors through diplomatic negotiation and Gang Jo who took the political power through overthrowing, and his hardline policy against Khitan could be used for the pretext to back up the good lord politics advocated by Kim Jung-il.

KCI등재

5고려시대 불교 관련 금석문(金石文) 찬술(撰述)의 양상과 고려사회의 성격

저자 : 이명미 ( Lee Myung-mi )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 157-191 (35 pages)

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Memorial stones were made through Goryeo king's orders especially for the monks with the titles, 'king's teacher(王師)' or 'teacher of the country(國師)' and the inscriptions were usually written by officials in charge of writing king's orders(文翰官). This reflected the need of the disciples to clarify that the inscription containing the actual interests of Buddhist temples was the king's will, and also was in line with the system of the king's teacher(王師) and teacher of the country(國師) operated under the country's need to control Buddhist churches.
The officials in charge of writing king's orders(文翰官)' writing inscriptions for the monks has a political and public character. However there was no role of the state in the process of their securing the Buddhist-related knowledge they need to write the inscription. In other words, they were playing a public role based on knowledge gained in private areas. This shows the situation in which Buddhism was established as a universal culture and religion in the Goryeo Dynasty, while also showing the mixed aspect of the official and private sectors in the management of the bureaucracy of the Goryeo Dynasty.
This pattern continued in the latter phase of Goryeo Dynasty, but changes occurred at the same time. The authority of the Mongolian emperor was also highlighted in Buddhist-related inscriptions, and Mongolian officials often wrote the inscription or wrote the letters of the inscription in Goryeo. The 'Monument of Bogwang temple(普光寺碑)' is a good example of this change and the aspect of Buddhist monks' disciples' attempts to secure political authority through the royal order while erecting monuments for their teacher.
Since Chung-gam(沖鑑), the key figure of the monument was a 'teacher of the country(國師)', the monument could be erected through the royal order if it had not been for his will. When his will led his disciples to build a memorial stone for a temple, not for a monk, they sought to replace the authority they could gain through the royal order by asking Mongolian officials to write the inscription and the letters of the inscription.
Meanwhile, the fact that the monument was erected not long after the 'Anti-Yuan reform' shows how individuals who were not in the political arena viewed the Goryeo-Mongol relationship at a time when they were understood to have been very estranged from the political and historical point of view.

KCI등재

6고려시대 반구장경병(盤口長頸甁)의 재질간 형태 공유 양상과 특징

저자 : 한혜선 ( Han Hye-sun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 193-220 (28 pages)

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In this study, it examined the interrelationship between materials and the meaning of bury together through the exudation of Bangujangkeng Bottle made of celadon, pottery, and cooper ware, which are of the same form but of different materials in the tombs during the Goryeo Dynasty in 11th to 13th centuries. Although Bangujangkeng Bottle, which is made from a different material, forms an imitative relationship, it was found that it functionally has alternatives in materials. The imitation of the morphological aspect is usually found on the bronze Bangujangkeng Bottle made of different material, and it showed that a heel was attached and a sharply angled shoulder expression was reflected in celadon and earthenware. On the other hand, in the functional aspect, it was verified that each material was alternative relation by using only one material for each tomb regardless of the material when Bangujangkeng Bottle was used as bury together at the same period in one remains. In particular, considering the materials of literature and characteristics, it is assumed that pottery substituted for cooper and celadon. The reason is that pottery was relatively easier to obtain than cooper and celadon and the production process was not difficult.
The fact that Bangujangkeng Bottle, which was one of the essential items in the tombs during the middle of Goryeo Dynasty, was buried together regardless of materials means that it was so popular and it has specific characteristics at the time. In this study it was assumed the meaning as the influence of northern culture that flowed from the relationship with Liao Dynasty in 11th century, and it suggested that there was a possibility it was a symbolic item containing a role of a liquor bottle or a vase.
The study of craft history including tableware in the Goryeo Dynasty has a fundamental limitation that related literature materials are very insufficient and short. The relics exist but the absence of records that can support or prove its use and meaning is a kind of stuffiness that researchers have in common. The fragmented research trend by each material of crafts here is also one of the important factors that disrupt new interpretation and stereoscopic analysis. However, as discussed in this study, it found that the crafts during the Goryeo Dynasty have imitative or complementary aspects of certain elements depending on the materials. It is expected that if the integrated research is conducted on the various materials at the same time further than the research based on a single material, it will be helpful to understand the characteristics of tableware in more depth.

KCI등재

7의서로 본 고려시대의 창종(瘡瘇) 의료방안

저자 : 이영남 ( Lee Young-nam )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 221-252 (32 pages)

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Changjong(purulent diseases) (in Korean medicine, a collective term covering various types of bacterial pyogenic disease, for examples, abscess(jongki), carbuncle (ongjong), or furuncle(ongjeol) was very common in both the Eastern and Western world until the middle of the 20th century. By that time, Penicillin(a metabolite of Penicillium notatum), which Fleming discovered, had become a magic drug in treating various types of pyogenic diseases. Changjong occurs regardless of age, sex, and economic status. Furthermore, one who recovered from it would not gain immunity, so it could reoccur at any time. Although antibiotic therapy is very efficient in controlling changjong, there are still many people suffering from pyogenic diseases in underdeveloped areas where health care including hygiene and nutrition is suboptimal.
For an understanding of the medicinal life of Goryeo Dynasty, an analysis of the contents of Goryeo medical books, such as Eoeuichaulyo(『御醫撮要』, a book for Goryeo Royals), 『Hyangyakgugupbang(鄕藥救急方)』, 『Biyebackyobang(備豫百要方)』, and 『Samhwajahyangyakbang(三和子鄕藥方)』(all for Goryeo commoner) was extensively made. According to historical records as well as Medical Books, changjong was a very common disease that caused much inconvenience, pain, and even death regardless of status including the royal family, the ruling class, and the general population. Therefore, this article deals with medicinal measures the changjong during Goryeo period.
In 『Eoeuichaulyo』, pungbi(cerebral apoplexy, stroke) seems to be the most significant disease for the royal class, which prescription account for ca. 15% of the total prescriptions listed. Changjong prescriptions in this royal medical book are the third highest, with about 10% of all prescriptions. However, the most prevalent diseases of Goryeo commoners were changjong and similar skin ailments, as the number of prescriptions for these diseases was ca. 20%, notably higher than those of any other diseases.
Furthermore, focusing on the prescriptions listed in 『Eoeuichaulyo』 as well as in 『Hyangyakgugupbang』, the medicinal measures to address changjong disease were examined. There were two-pronged medicinal measures carried out in Goryeo Society, depending upon whether they were the royal and ruling class or the general public. More specifically, prescriptions for the royal class were given a specific name and required the combination of a number of medicinal ingredients(3~23 ingredients). Only a small number of the drug materials was of Goryeo-origin, whereas the majority of ingredients were imported products. The Goryeo royal class treated their purulent diseases with a number of medications which were prepared with various medicinal herbs through very complicated processes.
Since many of the bio-medical products used by the Goryeo ruling class are still clinically used as a bio-drug that is effective to treat changjong, they certainly experienced healing effects with those medications to a certain extent. However, the heavy metals (mercury, lead, arsenic) and toxic herbs, such as Padu(Croton Seed) or Mahwang(Ephedra Herb) used as medicinal ingredients may have resulted in drug toxicity to the Goryeo ruling class while treating changjong.
The herbal medicine used by ordinary people of Goryeo to treat changjong was home-made one with Goryeo's indigenous herbs that were readily available. Home-made herbal medicine was relatively easy to prepare, such as pounding the medicinal plants to make a drinkable liquid or dribbling a concentrated extract to the pyogenic lesion. In most oral prescriptions, a single herbal material was consumed. In case of external use, there were many single-ingredient medications, nevertheless sometimes vinegar, oil, egg-white etc. were combined to facilitate application. The average number of drug materials used for changjong prescriptions for the sake of ordinary people was 1.5 per prescription.
More than 80 kinds of medicinal herbs for changjong treatment, including Machihyun(Portulacae Herba) and Chohyup(Gleditsiae Fructus) were mentioned in 『Hyangyakgugupbang』. Some 40 herbs among those used by the old Goryeo commoner have been currently listed on 『KP』(The Korean Pharmacopoeia, 11th ed. 2017), 『KHP』(Korea Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 4th ed. 2012, partially revised ed. 2017), and 『Illustrated Guide to Clinical Medicinal Herbs』 owing to their active components in treating changjong. However, a few more than 10 herbs used by Goryeo people in treating changjong are not considered as the changjong therapeutics even though listed on the above books. Registration of these herbal materials is owing to their efficacies against other diseases rather than changjong.
Several materials used as therapeutics for changjong in Goryeo period have not been listed, since either some are toxic or not available currently in Korean herbal medicines market. Some are simply unacceptable as the medicinal materials in respect to nowadays concept. In certain cases, the Goryeo commoner used also certain food items, for example, eggplant, honey, egg white, wild chive, meju, alcohol, glutinous rice, sesame, and salt as ingredients for changjong remedies. Of course, these are not included in the 『KP』 and 『KHP』 list.
It is worth noting that Machihyun(Portulacae Herba), a medicinal herb used by the old Goryeo ordinaries to treat changjong, is still an indispensable one for the drug named YiMyongrae Goyak®(李明來 膏藥). Not only this, the Goryeo commoner also used a fermented soybean lump(Meju) in treating changjong. The healing effect of the fermented soybean lump for pyogenic changjong seem to be based on the antibiotic substances produced by the epiphytic fungi on it. It means that the Goryeo people knew empirically about antibiotic substances, and that the metabolite of microorganisms permeated into the Meju worked excellently to treat changjong.

KCI등재

8고려시기의 성곽 건설과 주민 동원-기와 명문(銘文)을 통한 새로운 접근-

저자 : 구산우 ( Koo San-woo )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 253-296 (44 pages)

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This paper investigates the construction of the fortress and mobilization of residents during the Goryeo Dynasty through the inscribed rooftiles which have recently been reported.
Among the residents mobilized for the construction of the fortress were Baekjeong(白丁), Namjeong(南丁), and Mokgong(木工). Soldiers of counties and prefectures and the worshippers of the temple were also mobilized. A labor organization was formed and mobilized for the construction of Chiso Castle(治所城) during the Goryeo Dynasty. Furthermore, the labor area which was assigned to the laborers mobilized in the course of the construction of the fortress was also set up. It is confirmed that multiple workshops participated in the rooftile making and did their respective jobs assigned to them in constructing the Goryeo Dynasty fortress.
This paper looks into those who directed the construction of the fortress as well. The uppermost Hyangni(鄕吏), Sasin(使臣) dispatched from the central government, and Myeonjogwan(面造官) were in charge of directing those mobilized for the construction of the fortress.
The issue of central government's dispatching Sasin(使臣) and of mobilizing residents from other regions is examined. It is thought that if labor or supplies were insufficient to build a fortress in a particular county and prefecture during the Goryeo Dynasty, it was quite common to recruit and mobilize residents from nearby counties and prefectures or to squeeze out money from residents of nearby counties and prefectures.

KCI등재

9흥요국(興遼國) 건국과 고려(高麗)·계단(契丹)·여진(女眞) 관계의 변화

저자 : 정나영 ( Jung Na-young )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 297-332 (36 pages)

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This article is to examine the rise of the Xing-Liao dynasty based in the Eastern Capital(東京) of Khitan and its influence on the changes of Goryeo, Khitan and Jurchens' relations. To this day, research has mainly focused on the dynasty of Xing-Liao in the perspective of how the subdued Balhae(㴾海 Pohai) people was treated under the Khitan rule or one of the series of revolts by Balhae people who had political aspirations. This paper, however, concentrates on the importance of the Xing-Liao dynasty's establishment in the context of East Asia, and its significance on the three parties' relations.
The Xing-Liao dynasty was established in the Eastern Capital led by Da Yanlin(大延琳). This is where Goryeo and Khitan consulted their diplomatic issues, Jurchens exchanged their commodities, and a large number of Balhae descendants resided in the Eastern Capital -a diplomatically, commercially and politically important in this period. As people's grievances toward Khitan's rule increased here, Da Yanlin established the Xing-Liao dynasty and Jurchens also participated in it. In November 1029, Khitan organized the troops and sent them to the Eastern Capital to suppress the rebellion. Through the records on epitaph, it is also found that soldiers at the neighboring prefectures and predominantly Chinese troops were joined to the suppression. Da Yanlin was finally caught in August 1030 but it was in November that Khitan government took measures of relocating Balhae people who participated in the rebellion. In addition, the records stating that Balhae and Khitan people fled to Goryeo even after then. From these records, it is supposed that the circumstance of the Eastern Capital was insecure due to the uprising and its subsequent measures.
After the Xing-Liao dynasty was established, both the Xing-Liao dynasty and Khitan sent envoys to Goryeo seeking military support. In an early stage Goryeo sent troops to the eastern region of Amnok River(鴨綠江) in order to reclaim the territory from Khitan, which considered anti-Khitan action, but Goryeo's attempt was failed. Also, as confirming that Khitan sent the troops to suppress the Xing-Liao dynasty in a large scale, Goryeo determined to monitor the situation. After the Xing-Liao dynasty was conquered, Goryeo sent an envoy to Khitan and attempted to normalize the diplomatic relations. On the other hand, Goryeo attempted to contact the Song dynasty under the insecurity and Khitan's weakened control over the Eastern Capital.
The relationship among Jurchens, Goryeo and Khitan also showed changes in new aspects during this period. Jurchens had regularly traded with other tribes in the Eastern Capital circuit and with Khitan in a spring moving court. As Jurchens lost opportunities for exchanging commodities due to the insecurity of the region, they sent a large amount of weapons to Goryeo at that time. In addition, Tieli(鐵利) requested Goryeo to bestow the calendar and it sent envoys or traded with Goryeo every year until 1033. Jurchens' also attributed their more active contact with Goryeo to the rise of the Xing-Liao dynasty and the unsteady hold of the Khitan over the Jurchens. Therefore, it is assumed that the establishment of the Xing-Liao dynasty triggered the changes of Goryeo, Khitan and Jurchens' relations. This research is significant in that these series of events illustrate the dynamics of the multistate system in the 11th century East Asia.

KCI등재

10공민왕 5년 인당(印璫) 발탁과 제거 분석

저자 : 오기승 ( Oh Ki-seung )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 333-362 (30 pages)

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After political upheaval in the fifth period of King Gongmin(1356), King Gongmin ordered attack the eight Yam of the Mongol empire in west side of the Yalu river. And he appointed In Dang(印璫) as the commander. Because, due to the attribute of the military operations that had to cross the Yalu River, King Gongmin needed the person who had military operation experience in the territory of Yuan empire and had a strong military experience and track record. And in the May 1356, In Dang was the best person in King Gongmin's need.
However, In Dang was not originally a close affair of the King Gongmin, but he also had a side that could be interpreted as a potential anxiety factor in the background. In response, King Gongmin attempted to control these elements systematically by reviving the Byungmasa(兵馬使) system that disappeared after the reign of King Chungnyeol. It was also an attempt to reorganize the king's military control, using the Goryeo system of the previous period, as the king's military control was weakened and dispersed due to interference of the Yuan empire.
King Gongmin appointed the best expeditionary commander, In Dang, as a Chief commander, and also appointed Kang Joong-gyeong, the aide of the king, as a Vice commander, and gave him the same military rank as the Indang. At the same time, King Gongmin attempted to control the anxiety elements by a combined means through the Byungmasa system and the status of the king. This was the first attempt by the King Gongmin to establish a system to control general's forces and to gain control. However, this attempt was not effective at the time. And immediately after their appointment as Byungmasa, In Dang killed Kang Joong-gyeong arbitrarily, and the King Gongmin's attempt ended in failure.
Therefore, the root cause of the King Gomgmin's elimination of In Dang should be regarded as the fact that In Dang collapsed the king's policy plan to rearrange the dispersed Goryeo's military control centered on the king. And it was the result of In Dang killing Kang Joong-gyeong arbitrarily.
For this reason, the King Gomgmin had already decided to eliminate the In Dang at the time of the murder of Kang Joong-kyung. But it was not immediately implemented, and the means of eliminating the In Dang had to use schemes, not formal mandates. This indicates that there was still a difference between the king and the existing influential generals in dominating of soldiers.

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