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한국중세사연구 update

The Journal of Korean Medieval History

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1994)~61권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 611
한국중세사연구
61권0호(2020년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1고려시대 생산과 납세의 대상

저자 : 이상국 ( Lee Sang-kuk )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 11-38 (28 pages)

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This paper aims to explore what the subject to production and tax payment in Goryeo dynasty was under unstable conditions of agricultural productivity. To gain this purpose, the combining process of the peasant and the land was examined from a long-term perspective covering from Silla to the early Joseon and the process of tax payment in Stipend Land Law system was investigated as well. In consequence, I verify the land was allotted by the unit of ho[gongyeon, jeongho[ban-jokjeong]] from Silla to the early Joseon. And I also confirm ho[gongyeon, jeongho[ban-jokjeong]] organized by various households is the main agent of production. Moreover, the allotted land in the Stipend Land System was meant to collecting tax amount, and the Stipend Land System was managed to establish the farmers who was organized by the unit of a ho and to receive a land tax and tribute goods which was imposed on the allotted land.

KCI등재

2중세 경제사 연구에서 토지 소유권과 수조권에 대한 재검토

저자 : 이민우 ( Lee Min-woo )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 39-71 (33 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to reexamine the functions and meanings of the right of collecting land-tax in the economic social formation of Goryeo. In Goryeo society, the right of collecting land-tax and the institute of Jeonsi-gwa[田柴科] constitute the core of economic social formation. Korean medieval history researchers interpreted that this right was on the basis of the private ownership of the land. However, the historical records of the Goryeo society showed that the demarcation between land-ownership and the right of collecting land-tax was ambiguous.
The right of collecting land-tax granted to the ruling class through the state were, in themselves, a firm right to dominate the land in that it guarantees the acquisition of half of production. The right of collecting land-tax can be said to be the dominant form of land ownership of in Goryeo society. In these society, the ruling class has little incentive to have direct interest in agricultural management and production. In Goryeo society, not as in the late Joseon, there was no production system where the landlord directly controlled other people[the farmer] through the land property. We must ask what conditions these production system emerged from.

KCI등재

3통치제도로서의 토지분급제와 그 변화 -전시과를 중심으로-

저자 : 신은제 ( Shin Eun-jae )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 73-108 (36 pages)

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The study of socio-economic history in the Goryeo period has been conducted under the influence of the theory of evolution. Therefore, studies that deny or claim the internal evolutionary process of Korean history, have left research achievement. As a result, Goryeo's land system was regarded as a foundation(Marxist meaning) and evolved through an internal change process. This paper deviated from the theory of evolution and treated the land system as a political system.
Goryeo's land system can be roughly divided into Jeonsigwa(田柴科) in the former and Nokwajeon(祿科田) in the late. Since Nokwajeon is a system that emerged in a completely different social environment from the former, the continuity of the two systems cannot be confirmed. Jeonsigwa in the first-half of Goryeo Dynasty was revised several times, after it was established in 976(Gyeongjong 1). The most notable revisions are the revisions of 998(Mogjong 1) and 1076 (Munjong 30). Contrary to the view of understanding the Jeonsigwa as payment system of the right to collect land tax, I understood that Jeonsigwa emerged in different social environments at specific times, not as a continuous system, but as a disconnected system.
Jeonsigwa is basically a system implemented on the premise of land surveying. Since the land survey in Goryeo was completed in 995(Seongjong 14), the characteristics of Jeonsigwa before and after 995 must be different. In 1076, the land was newly surveyed, measured by determining the amount of tax, and finally the land payment system for bureaucrats was reorganized. The reorganization of 1076 took place in a different social background than that of the previous period.
I hope that this paper will renovate the study of the Goryeo land system and escape the evolutionary theory and become the basis for understanding the economic system in the Goryeo Dynasty in a more historic way.

KCI등재

4고려시대 요공(徭貢)의 실체와 공납제 운영 양상

저자 : 소순규 ( So Soon-kyu )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 111-141 (31 pages)

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It is true that the contents of the system have not been clearly studied, especially those related to spot such as tributes and compulsory labor services in the taxation systems in the Goryeo Dynasty. In this paper, I tried to access the substance of Yogong(徭貢), compulsory labor service and tax), which was not discussed in detail in the previous research, and based on this, I intended to review the overall operation of the tributary system during the Goryeo Dynasty.
As a result of the research, Yogong is a tribute provided through the compulsory labor service of baekjung(白丁) living in general Juhyun(州縣), Hyang incense, and Bugok. Unlike prescribed labor, which solves the burden of compulsory labor through physical labor, the Yogong was a method for baekjung to provide labor service. The ordinary people in So(所) performed labor services by producing and paying for certain materials, so the tribute of Yongong and So were different tributes that came from the difference in the burden of labor service among the residents and the common people. It can be said that these two kinds of tributes were the backbone of the tribute to the Goryeo society before Sangyo and Jabgong appeared.
Judging from this characteristic of Yogong, the double receiving structure, as pointed out in the previous study, did not need to be established. As the Nation-Counties and Prefectures were the taxation system of Joyongjo(租庸調), the previous study which explained Minho is a receiving of Jopoyeok(租布役) was an explanation in the position that a tribute is equivalent to Jo(調) of Joyongjo. However, Yogong and tributes from So(所), that is a tribute of the Goryeo Dynasty was related to the role(役), and, accordingly, it is possible to identify by unifying that receiving categories, Joyongjo and Jopoyeok.

KCI등재

5고려 현종 즉위년 '파교방(罷敎坊)' 기사의 해석과 정치적 의미

저자 : 송보라 ( Song Bo-ra )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 143-170 (28 pages)

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This study is purposed to review the political character of 'Gyobang reduction' made in February of the accession year of King Hyeonjong to the throne. King Hyeonjong, the 8th King of Goryeo dynasty was enthroned by the abnormal procedure through a military coup. Thus, the records at that time when King Hyeonjong came to the throne could not help being political. 『Goryeosa』 and 『Goryeosa-Jeoryo』 show only three records on February of the year of King Hyeonjong's enthronement. One of the them is the fact that in February “abolished Gyobang, released about one hundred court ladies, demolished Nangwonjeong, and set free the crawling animals, birds, and fish into the mountains and waters”.
'paGyobang' enforcement around King Hyeonjong's enthronement was closely related to political situation during King Mokjong's reign. In the period of King Mokjong's reign, Empress Chunchu and Kim Chi-yang seized absolute power, and he built a pavilion named Nangwonjeong in the palace to enjoy Gyobang dance and music, see rare and curious animals day and night by holding splendid and extravagant banquets. They were always accompanied by court ladies belonging to Gyobang in the palace and used them for their personal purpose, with excessive indulgence, extravagance, and enjoyment at Nangwonjeong.
Kim Chi-yang and Empress Chunchu enjoyed Gyobang music at Nangwonjeong in the palace and disturbed discipline of state by “enjoying and hanging around with no compunction”. Thus, Gang Jo and his supporters who changed the regime at the end of King Mokjong's reign wanted to the political situation messed up by reorganizing Gyobang right after the change. In addition, Gang Jo could find justification for the coup by releasing the court ladies at Gyobang and destroying Nangwonjeong as the symbol of Kim Chi-yang and Empress Chunchu's indulgence, helping King Hyeonjong to the throne.
'paGyobang' in February of the assession year of King Hyeonjong to the throne was a typical story showing the political situation related to King Hyeonjong's enthronement, which was a political action related to a series of rapid political changes of Empress Chunchu and Kim Chi-yang's corruption, King Mokjong's dethronement, removal of Empress Chunchu and Kim Chi-yang, and King Hyeonjong's enthronement. Gyobang experienced reorganization by downsizing on the line.

KCI등재

61231년 서북면병마사(西北面兵馬使) 박서(朴犀)의 구주성전투(龜州城戰鬪)에 대한 검토

저자 : 강재광 ( Kang Jae-gwang )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 171-220 (50 pages)

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Gujuseong(龜州城) battle was the unique victory in the northern area of Cheongcheon River(淸川江) on the first war against Mongol in 1231. This battle was prolonged war that had lasted over 4 months, from September in 1231 to the first ten days of January in 1232. At that time, Bukrogun(北路軍) of Mongol army that had attacked to Gujuseong was supposed to troops under control of generals of Khitan tribe(契丹族)'s origin, for example, Yayulseoldo(耶律薛闍) Wang Yeongjo(王榮祖) Ijamaeno(移刺買奴) etc.
Gujuseong was a big castle that its circumference reached almost to 5km, as a famous mountain fortress of Bukkye(北界). Therefore, this castle played an important role as a strategic location of inland road of Bukkye. The scale of military force of Guju(龜州) was the fourth ranking in the whole of Bukkye. And military importance of this town, was equivalent to the third placing in Bukkye.
On the first war against Mongol in 1231, Guju people as well as Byeolchogun(別抄軍) and county residents of Jeongju(靜州) Sakju(朔州) Wuiju(渭州) Taeju(泰州) gathered in Gujuseong that was a powerful strongpoint of Heunghwado(興化道).
Seobukmyunbyungmasa(西北面兵馬使), Park Seo(朴犀) fighted against invasion of Mongol Bukrogun, under the tactics of Daeseong-ipbochaek(大城入保策). The first Gujuseong battle on September in 1231, developed in centering around south gate and north gate battles. At the first battle of south gate battle, brave fighting of Kim Gyungson(金慶孫) who was Jeongju Bundojanggun(分道將軍) reversed war situation. After south gate battle, Park Seo resisted the attack of Molgol Bukrogun that fully mobilized various weapons such as catapult, Chungcha(衝車) and Moksang(木床), preparing defensive measure against enemy effectively.
The second Gujuseong battle on October in 1231, was spreaded in direction of Sinseomun(新西門). Specially, at the battle of 21th day on October in 1231, Mongol Bukrogun had a command of Yiyijeyi(以夷制夷) tactics. They brought surrendered Goryeo soldiers into an attack in full force. Sending of surrendered Goryeo soldiers was a measure for replacing short military strength, because a few units out of Mongol Bukrogun participated to Anbukbu(安北府) battle. Mongol army climbed over the ramparts of Gujuseong Sinseomun at one point. But Park Seo and the people of Gujuseong repelled to enemy, due to desperate resistance.
In the third Gujuseong battle on November in 1231, Park Seo fortified broken ramparts to steel chain. After repair of the wall of Gujuseong, he defeated to enemy for conducting coup de main operation. In the fourth Gujuseong battle on December in the same year, Mongol army attacked to Gujuseong, using Wunje(雲梯) for climbing over the wall of the castle. On this, Park Seo succeeded in wrecking Wunje, making good use of Daewupo(大于浦).
The victory of Gujuseong battle was the fist case that Goryeo beat off Mongol army by Daeseong-ipbochaek, and created to the strategic effec that tied Mongol Bukrogun to inland road of Bukkye. Besides, tearful victory of this battle put the brakes on the battle schedule and employment of forces of Mongol Bukrogun. Consequently, Gujuseong battle caused influence somewhat to Jajuseong(慈州城) battle for the future. Also, the struggle of this battle brought to the effect that delayed placement of Darugachi(達魯花赤) in Bukkye, inducing prolonged war. In addition to this, Guju was raised to the status of Jeongwondaedohobu(定遠大都護府) for the reward of national level, and emerged rapidly as a symbolic region of the war against Mongol.

KCI등재

713세기 중엽에 조성된 『금장요집경』의 역사·문화적 성격

저자 : 최영호 ( Choy Young-ho )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 221-248 (28 pages)

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This paper newly attempt to analyze into the historical & cultural character of the Jinzang-Yaojijing that had been created in the middle of the 13th century.
the original data utilized the Printing-Books of Jinzang-Yaojijing's volume 1-4 that has been currently preserved in the Beomeo-temple(梵魚寺) and the personal storage-material. the key analysis indicators were used as the letter-form & bibliographic information & engravers(刻手) that have been inscribed on the Printing-Books of Jinzang-Yaojijing's volume 1-4. the original information has been newly organized.
Its letter-form is identical to the letters of the Haein-Temple's Tripitaka-Woodblock(海印寺大藏經板) that had been created at the Goryeo(高麗)-Dynasty-Daejangdogam(大藏都監) & Goryeo(高麗)-Dynasty-BunsaDaejangdogam(分司大藏都監) in the middle of the 13th century. Its form of bibliography is almost the same as the case of the Seonmun-yeomsong-jip(禪門拈頌集) that had been created at the HaejangBunsa(海藏分司) in 1243, and the case of the the Commentary on the Vajrasamādhi-Sutra(金剛三昧經論) that had been created by the Jeong―An(鄭晏) in the 1244. Especially, the engravers also had created the Haein-Temple's Tripitaka-Woodblock at the Daejangdogam & BunsaDaejangdogam between 1238 and 1248. therefore, the extant Jinzang-Yaojijing's original Woodblock had been created at the Daejangdogam & BunsaDaejangdogam in the middle of the 13th century.
The created background of the Jinzang-Yaojijing's Woodblock was the restoration the Buddhist community and temples that had faced the crisis of existence due to the invasion of Mongolian soldiers in the middle of the 13th century. because the Jinzang-Yaojijing' contained in the practical content of Buddhism that could overcome the realistic crisis of Goryeo-Dynasty Buddhism-community and temples.

KCI등재

8고종대 고려-몽골 관계에서 '조공'의 의미

저자 : 정동훈 ( Jung Dong-hun )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 249-285 (37 pages)

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This paper examined the economic burden that Goryeo had to bear on Mongol Empire in their early relations(1219-1259) and the negotiation between the two sides surrounding it. The long-standing tribute in Korea-China relations appeared in a very unusual way during this period. The two sides had different understanding of the practice called by the same name, and the actual content changed according to the situation.
Since 1219, Mongol Empire had demanded Goryeo to provide a huge amount of supplies each year. During the Chingis's era, Mongol was not well aware of the extent to which goods were produced in Goryeo. They had, so to speak, a goal of one-time, direct looting. Goryeo responded by adjusting the items and quantity of goods once fulfilling Mongolia's demands.
From the time of Ögüdei Qa'an's reign, the Mongol Empire strengthened its direct dominance over the residential areas. Since 1232, the Qa'an had requested Goryeo to conduct a census. He tried to collect taxes and levys more systematically after grasping Goryeo's economic situation. Goryeo responded with the payment of the annual grants, as promised at the time in 1219, but did not show any signs of responding to the census. The negotiations had stalled.
Meanwhile, Goryeo had been steadily providing supplies to Mongol every year since the 1240s. It was a strategy to make the 1219 agreement a fait accompli. Mönke admitted it implicitly, and in the 1250s, no further discussion on the census, or requisition of goods, was held between the two countries. A new formula of relations was established after the new monarchs were enthroned both sides in 1260.

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

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2미국의 비트코인 규제

(2006)홍길동41회 피인용

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