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연극교육연구 update

Jounal of Korean Theatre Education

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1997)~37권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 348
연극교육연구
37권0호(2020년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1영화적 대본1)의 연극연출 방법-공연 ≪일리아드≫를 중심으로-

저자 : 이현정 ( Lee Hyunjung )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 5-41 (37 pages)

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During the early- and mid-20th century, numerous theatre plays and musicals were transfered to screens for their superior quality in terms of dramatic structure and spectacles. The forte and splendor of live performances inspired filmmakers and general audiences who wanted recapture the magic of the stage on screen. In the 21st century, however, the tide has turned the other way. Less and less theatre pieces were adapted into film versions as traditional theatrical languages and expressions has lost their upper hands to more advanced and versatile technology of cinematography. The expansion of multiple platforms such as on streaming services, cable programs as well as traditional TV and cinema venues occupied majority of drama market pushing stage productions to marginal rim of drama industry.
Since the previous century, there have been pioneers in theatre who committed themselves to differentiate the aesthetics of theatre from realistic cinemas. Bertolt Brecht, for example, aside from his ideological backgrounds, developed a new non-Aristotelian theatre which revolutionized the dramatic structure and stagecraft which expanded the limit of theatre space into a new dimension of dramatic flexibility and liberated theatrical imagination. Furthermore, under the influence of cinematic storytelling today, contemporary theatre practitioners also began to probe and experiment new methods to stage more challenging cinematic scripts which usually breaks the rule of the unity of action, place, and time.
Directing a theatrical adaptation of Homeros' great epic poem 『Iliad』 was a challenging effort to put 24 books onto stage preserving its original scale and multiple story lines. While a film like ≪Troy≫ edits out many aspects of the poem and follows Achilles as major tragic hero in the way of classical(Aristotelian) Greek tragedies, my stage rendering of ≪Iliad≫ paradoxically aimed to capture multiple levels of characters, actions, and complex flow of the original epic poem by making the most of theatrical flexibilities and expressive potentials in three ways.
The Problem of Plot Structure and Directorial Solution: As Aristotle puts it, the epic poem differs from the tragedy (drama) in that the former has a greater length, simultaneous incidents, loosely connected episodes with multiple characters' journeys, and many different locations (more akin to cinematic structure). Unlike tragedy, which focuses on a single tragic hero, an epic structure prefers a story itself. Likewise, my stage version of ≪Iliad≫ adopts more cinematic approaches. Actors as 'storytellers' start reading the poem and gradually walk into the unabridged narrative of Iliad as characters. At the end of the play, they return to actors/storytellers to make comments on the destiny of each character and the story in general. The last spectacular leaps and shouts of actors/characters disappear in blackout and there is only a book left on stage when the light comes back. Directing highlights book-story-epic narrative over traditional hero-centered drama.
The Problem of Stage and Space: The greatest challenge for directing cinematic script is to deal with multiple scene changes without losing seamless flow and tempo. Furthermore, it required separated spaces, Olympus above and earthly battlefield below, and the latter should provide an empty stage for flexible staging for multiple locations and quick changes. Building a sizable and solid set for each scene was not an option. The stage designer used motifs of the ancient Greek pillars and set up 2 of the bigger ones on the Olympus (2nd Floor) and 2 smaller ones on the stage. The smaller ones reveal battle-stricken skeletons inside. This symbolic pillar units contributed to integrating two different levels of worlds and enforcing the main theme. Six to eight iron cubes of different sizes were of great help for our physical theatre since they can be handled easily by actors as bed, camps, rocks towers, caskets and others as needed without any interruption. Overall design of space also aimed to make the most of the architecture of CJ Azit, whose architecture is very peculiar and resistant to traditional type of staging.
The Problem of Actors, Characters, and Costumes Staging of ≪Iliad≫ requires many characters on cinematic scale. All 14 actors took the roles of minimum 7 to 8 characters. Actors, all trained in diverse physical theatres and Viewpoints, developed a series of stylistic gestures and movements for gods, evil spirits and so on. Costume design was made in a way that actors can change their costumes onstage instantly with minimum number of handy props and accessories.
The 21st century is characterized by cinematic imagination with cinematic tempo. Culture of drama has shifted from literature-centered to video-centered. As Marie-Anne Charbonnier warns, the modern theatre may lose its vitality obsessed with capturing 'daily, common, vivid human relationships as it is.' The glory of 20th century theatre legacy faces the greatest challenge of survival in a new era of film pouring out of multi platforms. There have been some heroic efforts of theatre practitioners, however, who dream to explore a new horizon of theatre. The gap between a new theatre and the fundamental theatre may not be wide as we assume. A breakthrough to form a new theatre in the 21st century must and will be found from our great theatrical inheritance, not in emulation of film media. Directing ≪Iliad≫ was a such a step towards the new horizon dreaming new possibilities. It will be a great honor and joy if this case study is used as a stepping stone to further such experiments by other thespians.

KCI등재

2욕망의 헤테로토피아 건축하기-사라 룰의 <옆방에서 혹은 바이브레이터 플레이> 수행적 공간 연출-

저자 : 이강임 ( Lee Gang-im )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 43-118 (76 pages)

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It is fairly necessary for the theatre director to conceive what the theatre space for the work in planning would like to be. Furthermore, conceiving theatre space is the first and basic tool to embody the work in process. Therefore, time-space matter has been the very important issue in the academic field of performance studies. Since the concept of time-space is also based on our very subjective and individual experience, it is a fact that the researchers have had a hard time in dealing with time and space in performance studies.
For the author of this paper, as a theatre director and a scholar, I have been searching for the materials about theatre and time-space, but I have not found much resources for that matter. I had tried to illuminate time-space matter from the perspectives of performance studied in a paper titled 「performance space directing: focused on the performativity of space」. As for that paper, I explained the concept of performativity of theatre space, but I could not have a scholarly achievement in examining how the director in focus conceived the theatre space in detail. In that paper, I borrowed the concept of performativity defined by Judith Butler, stating that “in social space like theatre space, space does not express the real relationship and identity, but space itself is the very process in which the relationships and identifications are produced.”
As a continuing project of the earlier paper, in this paper, not only I delve into the peformative quality of space, but also I apply the very concept of performative space to my own directing work, Sarah Ruhl's < In the Next Room or the Vibrator Play > in 2017. My thesis is that social space like theatre space is not an empty container, but a site in which the very complex social relations and differences like 'gender,' 'class,' and 'race' cross and overlap. In this paper, using interdisplinary research method of performace studies, I try to look at the various concepts about space which inspired me to conceive theatre space for Sarah Ruhl's < In the Next Room or the Vibrator Play >.
The scholars and practitioners like Doreen Massey, Henri Lefevre, Jacques Rancière, Elizabeth Grosz, bell hooks, Luce Irigaray, Zaha Hadid offered me huge insights about the concept of time-space. Conclusively, I define performative space directng as image cartography. Through my discussion of space directing as image cartography, I talk about the desired images of house, home, sexuality, and love in Sarah Ruhl's < In the Next Room or the Vibrator Play >. Using the diverse theoretical backgrounds in this practical paper, I suggest the model of both theoretical and practical paper.

KCI등재

3<조씨고아, 복수의 씨앗>에 나타난 비극성의 고찰

저자 : 김효 ( Kim Hyo )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 119-148 (30 pages)

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The Orphan of Zhao(趙氏孤兒), the seed of revenge is a dramatic performance based on the Chinese ancient play written by Ji, Jun-sian(紀君祥) of Yuan(元) dynasty, and adapted to put it on the stage by Korean director Seon-Woong Ko. This performance was performed by the Korean National Drama Company, wining the several famous theatreical prizes including the very best director prize of the year. This paper attemps to clarify the tragic aspect, which was an important factor in the success of this perfrmance. In conclusion, it was found that this performance creates intense tragedy and deep emotion by combining western ideological codes with emotional codes rooted in Korean tradition. This performance provides a good example of how the fusion-based artistic method can be done to become an effective artistic method, which overcomes the limitations of superficiality encountered by intercultural theatre caracterized by western content in oriental style forming a trend in the 1990s.

KCI등재

4≪외로운 사람, 힘든 사람, 슬픈 사람≫의 연출 접근방법 연구

저자 : 한호정 ( Han Ho Jung ) , 조준희 ( Cho Joon Hui )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 149-187 (39 pages)

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Anton Chekhov(1860-1904)'s plays are different from other 19th century realism pieces due to the unique daily life of the Chekhov play. The daily life of Chekhov is not a represented routine on a superficial level. This evokes a new experience of theatre by presenting an unusual nature of human life in everyday life. Therefore, Chekhov's plays have been loved by many artists and are actively staged in various forms so far. A Playwright, Yoon Sung-ho's The Lonely, The Tired, The Sad(2018) in Seoul which will be dealt in this paper is a re-creation of Uncle Vanya by Chekhov. This captures the theme from lack of communication and individual deprivation. It is also known as faithful example of localization of the original play by incorporating the daily life of Chekhov into contemporary daily life of modern Korean society now.
A viewpoint of art is bound to depend on how oneself view reality. Thus, the view and aspect on the everyday life in the play also varied as artists changed their viewpoints for the relationship between art and reality. In traditional represented plays, the everyday life was to "re-enact" reality on stage and to set the standard of value judgment on similarities with reality. However, after the advent of the post-drama era, everyday life is at a completely different starting point from that of the past. As Jean Baudrillard(1929-2007) said, this is the age of Simulacre. In other words, everyday life in this era should be viewed as a simulacre everyday life, not as a reproducible one like the past. In this context, it is also necessary to understand that the everyday life dealt within contemporary plays is a simulacre everyday life that is selected and expanded by writers and directors to reveal the difference repeatedly. In order to stage such works, understanding the concept of simulacre everyday life and a new directional approach to visualize them are required at the same time.
This paper aims to create directorial approaches that strengthen the simulacre everyday life, which is revealed in The Lonely, The Tired, The Sad. To this end, the concept and characteristics of the simulacre everyday life were examined first and, based on this, the characteristics of the simulacre everyday life in The Lonely, The Tired, The Sad were analyzed as "1. Coexistence of actors and characters” and "2. Simultaneous speaking techniques to induce a shift in audience' attitude" Subsequently, '1. Creating simulacre characters' and '2. Utilizing scenography for creating a performative environment' were presented as production approaches to enhance the simulacre everyday life. Ultimately, this paper confirmed the possibility of enhancing the characteristics of the simulacre everyday life and the performative turn through the study of the directorial approaches based on the simulacre everyday life.

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Now that the prolonged Corona virus has made it physically difficult to get to the theater, the question of how to meet the theater is becoming important these days. In this situation, this paper attempts to shed light on Nikolai Evreinov's theatrical theory, that he wanted to find the meaning of the theater in daily life, not on the stage. The most important point of the various theatrical theories that Ereinov unfolded a century ago is that he brought the theater to our lives, daily lives, not to the stage.
Focusimg on Evreinov's theatrical theory, who sought to find the theater in personal life and daily life, this paper introduced the concepts of 'theatricality in everyday life' and 'theater for oneself' among his theatrical theories. In addition, in order to understand how these theories can be implemented in concrete and practical terms, I analyzed them in conjunction with the examples of contemporary audience dominant performances.
The contemporary performance targeted for this research is Project Group Port B's < The Complete Manual of Evacuation >. The performance is in line with Evreinov's concept of 'theatricality in daily life' in that it creates theatrical moments in normal daily life by using the most ordinary space as the stage, not a specific space. In addition, there is also a connection with Evreinov's concept of 'theater for oneself' in that the audience participates in the performance as an individual rather than a part of the collective crowd, and completes the performance with their own choices and wills.
Meanwhile, < The Complete Manual of Evacuation > aims to escape from the harsh reality through deviations from everyday life. In other words, this performance suggested the theater as a moment and space to evacuate from life. This can also be seen as a connection with Evreinov's theatrical theory, who believed that 'making a life theatrical' is the only way to save ourselves from cruel life and reality.

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This thesis reflects on the concept of 'Here and Now' in performing arts. Due to the spread of the Covid-19 virus in 2020, performing arts are confronted with discovering new concepts above 'Here and Now'. The British performing group Forced Entertainment has been searching for a point where they can connect performing arts with online live streaming since 2008. FE allows the audience to experience a lifelike time by freeing 'now' positioning the audience “in” the work through long durational performances. On the contrary, through table plays, to reflect on the representation framed by the works by transcending 'here' pulling the audience “out” of a small space. Each of the two extreme points that FE attempts give a sense of the life that has been confined in the Internet by evoking the temporality that has been deleted from the Internet art and giving an opportunity to reflect the representation of the space that has only been escaped so far.

KCI등재

7소설 ≪이방인≫의 연극적 시각화 방식

저자 : 나진환 ( Ra Jin-hwan )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 251-291 (41 pages)

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This paper is study on the way of visualization of text based on the empirical knowledge acquired from performance ≪Stranger≫.
Because this methodology was acquired through the researcher's long time body practice as a practitioner of theatrical arts, it is very important to summarize the meaning of this once again. That is, this empirical knowledge is knowledge in the inner creative process that is never allowed to a researcher who is an observer. The knowledge acquired in this inner creation process has the meaning of inner analysis as stated in the performing arts called ethnoscénologie, and presents the result of a study on the phenomenon of Korean theater creation through an academically proven external analysis and a research methodology that forms two axes. In addition, from an artist's personal standpoint, it provides important information that allows him to know his own aesthetic characteristics that are revealed through internal inquiry and to expand them to a universal aspect.
The stage of visualization begins with the thesis question that exists between analysis and interpretation. Visualization expands the questions revealed in the results from the method of analyzing the researcher's work from this process, and uses this as a thesis to create its own interpretation of this. The main themes of this interpretation lead to conceptualization, and what is conceptualized is transformed into a meta-image, and it can be seen as a work in the process leading to its sensitization or symbolization.
What is important here is the problem of how to construct this sensitized image? And the researcher explained this as the concept of 'structure/chain'. Just as the contradiction of light, that is, the property of light, which is both a wavelength and a particle, shows one aspect of light, this structure and chain are a performance image of a state of interlocking and connecting. In addition, if the explanation is made through the elements of the time delay (temporisation) and spacing (espacement) that appear in Derrida's term difference, the method of sensitizing this and making it attractive is the image structure/chain of this researcher.
To achieve this, first of all, it is necessary to turn literary descriptions into literary actions and make them into a theatrical action, a performance image of state. The sensuous images that make up the structure and state of these images are visualized through the visualization of dialogue in the scenes created by the performance image of the state, that is, words that are reorganized and redefined in action. Words are more embodied through structuralist speech borrowed from Levistros' structuralist anthropology. Instead of focusing on the phenomenon of speech, it is to create the phenomenon of speech by focusing on the relationship between the elements that make the phenomenon of speech. In other words, speech becomes a constitutive relationship of the elements that make up the phenomenon of speech, and this is explained as the "principle of making results" in theatrical anthropology pursued by Eugene Barba.
Through this method, it is grasped that the interpretation of the man who shot toward the sun with his back on death was created, and the intense 'immovable sun' soon became a symbol of death, and the repetition of daily life works like a rotating towel, and there are countless deaths in it. This contingency is explained by Sartre's concept of bloodiness. In other words, "existence takes precedence over essence."
Based on this, the concept of the stage, the empty world and the coffin create meaningless repetitions of daily life, and on this foundation, humans experience many deaths and eventually face perfect death. Therefore, through the appearance of life that comes into Meerso's gaze, looking at the last death with his back, he realizes the countless deaths experienced on the basis of this coffin and the death given by the immovable sun at its core.
Therefore, the structure/chain of sensational images of this work is created based on this concept and interpretation. This work is a visualization method of the deaths revealed in the repetition of meaningless life on the basis of the coffin that created the concept of deaths symbolized by the sun of pause and the sensory alienation effect.

KCI등재

8배우 교육에서의 과정 중심의 신체 훈련 지도방법 연구

저자 : 손봉희 ( Son Bong-hee )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 293-314 (22 pages)

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This thesis interrogates the term, a performer's 'bodily-based training' in reconsidering and articulating its purpose and practical meaning which directly link to the significance of a performer's bodily-based discipline and the principle of acting.
This research begins by retracing the place and role of those student-actors' body within which s/he has forget the fact that s/he has a body as s/he has mainly engaged in finding, pursuing, and/or copying a specific answer or result rather than understanding and inhabiting the value and origin of a specific training source(s) through his/her studio work.
Arming this point of view and reflecting the fundamental research question, 'why we do bodily training', this thesis discusses some problematic issues from a perspective of the gap between a performer's body and a role/character. Exploring the purpose and the significance of bodily-based discipline gives us not only better insight into how the performer work on his/her body as oneness, but also what the essential relationship is between a trainer and trainee and/or a teacher and a student-actor.
The consequences of this research finding is that the process of training/teaching and the principle of acting must be demystified through a performer's bodily experiences by interrogating what his/her body would work in learning and adapting a specific training source(s).
This thesis then moves on the necessity of a process-based approach in order to find and develop an alternative way. Particularly, a Japanese drama teacher, Michiko Ishii's concept for performer training addresses the importance of a way for restrained teaching in which Ishii acknowledges each student-actor's journey by means of what each student-actor has experienced through his/her body.
The process provides a certain means of teaching/training as a process of non-teaching/training in which each body could meet and therefore encounter in the here and now. This facilitates to enhancing the appropriate relationship between a trainer and trainee by avoiding the tendency towards the answer and/or result.
Interrogating and reconsidering the aforementioned approach and process leads us the comprehensive understanding of bodily training and acting. In other words, examining an account of how the performer's body constitute the concept of openness and spontaneity as unity takes place the notion of a performer's receptive body towards how to attain an optimal state of bodily awareness and deployment energy. Teaching and working on one's body which lies beneath the surface that any bodily training must be to meet the demand of the principle of acting in responding the purpose and meaning of bodily-based discipline(s).

KCI등재

9거리극 ≪미라클-2010≫의 시·공간 통합적 특징에 관한 연구 - 바흐친의 '크로노토프(chronotope)' 개념을 중심으로

저자 : 김종석 ( Kim Jongseok )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 315-343 (29 pages)

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This study focused on Bakhtin's concept of chronotope on how integrated features of the time and space are being implemented in the street festival performance "Miracle-2010." Through this, not only did Bakhtin's concept of chronotope simply analyze the time and space of the performing text, but also found that the time and space of the social context in which the performance exists were an important foundation of performance events and actions.
The characteristics of the Miracle-2010 performance can be seen as the first, creating an integrated performance space of daily life and fictional life, expanding the performance space, and the second, breaking down the boundaries between the audience and the actors throughout the performance, and the third, expanding the mutual participation of the audience and actors. The study argued that these features develop into social practices in which identity formation and ideology of community members are formed.
This allowed us to explain how the actual fictional chronotope was created and used in conjunction with the actual chronotope. In particular, it identifies the timeliness of physical space and makes us aware of the possibility of creating a more extended fictional chronotope. In fact, Bakhtin's concept of chronotope is not limited in the analysis of the performing text. As we saw in the analysis of the actual performance above, the use of the performance can be expanded from the beginning of action through personal experience to the expansion of the carnival concept made by actual social consensus.
Through discussions on the composition and utilization of the chronotope appearing in various street performances, future research will identify how the historical and spatial nature of everyday world is specifically reflected and projected into street performance, and in-depth analysis of the integrated features of the time and space.
This is because Bakhtin's concept of chronotope can provide a new framework for understanding and analyzing the process of creating street art performances. In addition, street performances that guarantee contemporaries in public space may explain how they communicate with the audience through artistic experiences and realize new practices.

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1연안해역에서 석유오염물질의 세균학적 분해에 관한 연구

(2006)홍길동 외 1명심리학41회 피인용

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2미국의 비트코인 규제

(2006)홍길동41회 피인용

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