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한국생산성학회> 생산성논집(구 생산성연구)

생산성논집(구 생산성연구) update

Productivity Review

  • : 한국생산성학회
  • : 사회과학분야  >  경영학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-3553
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  • : 생산성연구(~1997)→생산성논집(1997~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1987)~33권3호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,163
생산성논집(구 생산성연구)
33권3호(2019년 09월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1보상격차와 기업 생산성

저자 : 임정대 ( Jeongdae Yim )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 3-37 (35 pages)

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It is not surprising that executives take more money than employees do. In recent years, however, great attention has been shown to the question of whether executive's compensation is too much. Since the 1997 financial crisis, with the introduction of the U.S. compensation regimes, employees in Korean firms are expected to find the ever-increasing pay gap between executive and employees as unfair. So far, very little has been done in this direction. Therefore, this study's main objective is to draw policy implications as to whether Korea's pay gap is indeed justified and provides empirical evidence on employees' incentives and behaviors with compensation-related managers, by examining how the pay gap between executives and employees affects firm productivity. In addition, by estimating managerial ability following Demerjian et al. (2012) and then exploring how the managerial ability affects the relationship between pay gap and firm productivity, this study investigates whether there are differences in employees' perception over whether executives' overpay is the pay they deserve.
In light of the above, this study hypothesizes that pay gap between executives and employees makes a negative impact on firm productivity and that the negative effect is amplified in firms with low managerial abilities, and test the two hypotheses for firms listed on the KSE (Korean Stock Exchange) and KOSDAQ (Korean Securities Dealer Quotation). Using 17,731 firm-year observations listed on two Korean stock markets between 2002 and 2017, this study finds a negative relationship between pay gap (measured as the logarithm of the ratio of the annual average cash pay of executives to that of employees) and firm productivity (measured as sales per employees or total factor productivity). A tentative explanation for this result is that most employees in Korean listed firms believe that their executives' pay is unjustifiably high. This sentiment seems to support the equity theory of Adams (1965) or the relative deprivation theory suggested by Crosby (1976) and Martin (1981) for Korean listed firms. Meanwhile, based on the managerial abilities of firms, this study reports that the negative effect of pay gap between executives and employees only occurs in low managerial ability firms. Employees in firms with low managerial ability may consider their executives' overpay as unfair, while those in firms with high managerial ability accept the executives' pay as deserving.
This study conducts some additional tests. Two main findings remain robust in firm-fixed effect model to alleviate an endogeneity problem from omitted variable bias, in two-stage regressions using peer-firm pay gaps as an instrumental variable to consider a potential reverse causality, and in a dynamic panel data model of Arellano and Bond (1991) for controlling for inter-temporal persistence of firm productivity. Finally, this study tests whether main findings appear differently in subsamples divided into Chaebol and non-Chaebol firms and manufacturing and non-manufacturing firms. The negative effect of pay gap between executives and employees is pronounced for non-Chaebol firms or manufacturing firms than in Chaebol firms or non-manufacturing firms. Specially, this study finds the results that two hypotheses are supported in all subsamples except for Chaebol firms. This study first presents empirical evidence on the effect of pay gap between executives and employees on productivity of Korean listed firms. Furthermore, this study also contributes to useful evidence concerning the equity theory or relative deprivation theory by exploring how managerial ability is associated with the relationship between pay gap and firm productivity. The findings in this study may be used as reference for how pay for executives should be determined so as not to impede productivity and then as information to enhance productivity of Korean firms in pay-related decision makings considering managers' abilities.

KCI등재

2인력구조조정이 구성원의 정서적 몰입에 미치는 영향 : 고용불안정성 지각의 매개효과와 경력정체의 조절효과

저자 : 박광흠 ( Kwangheum Park ) , 문재승 ( Jaeseung Moon )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 39-68 (30 pages)

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In the past, the goal of achieving cost-effective survival and short-term business results were pursued. Recently, however, the issue of strengthening organizational competitiveness has become important. Many previous studies have argued that workforce restructuring negatively affects the attitudes and behaviors of employees. These studies concentrated on the direct effects of workforce restructuring and neglected to identify the mechanism by which restructuring was accomplished.
Therefore, this study examines the direct effect of workforce restructuring on the affective commitment of the employees as well as investigates that perceived job insecurity has on the relationship between workforce restructuring and affective commitment. The study also empirically assesses the moderating effect of career plateau on the relationship between workforce restructuring and perception of job insecurity.
For the empirical study, we conducted a self-report questionnaire survey of 422 members of big companies in Korea, the answers from which were used for data analysis. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows. First, the relationship between workforce restructuring and affective commitment was not significant. Second, perceived job insecurity mediated the relationship between workforce restructuring and affective commitment. Third, content career plateau had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between workforce restructuring and job insecurity; however, structural career plateau had no significant moderating effect.
This study seeks to extend and augment workforce restructuring and career plateau related studies by exploring the mediating variable(job insecurity perception) and moderating variable(career plateau) on the relationship between workforce restructuring and outcomes. In practice, workforce restructuring is an opportunity to strengthen organizational capacity and provide sound tension to the organization when it is flexibly applied considering management circumstances. Organizations need to manage the process of making changes in management to resolve job insecurity during the restructuring precess, and also address the issue of career plateau in relation to employees.
Finally, the limitations of this research and future directions for further studies were outlined based on the empirical results.

KCI등재

3An Analysis on the Growth Factors and Organizational Performance of Small Giant Enterprises in South Korea

저자 : Dongho Kim , Sang Hyeon Sung

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 69-95 (27 pages)

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Big shadows hung over to the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by large conglomerates have made the growth of SMEs limited as they have to play restricted roles as suppliers to their large companies along with the supply chains. Thus appropriate innovation or disruptive changes of SMEs have been restricted in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. The structural changes of economy in South Korea require lots of SMEs which have competitive technological advantages in the field of parts, materials and equipments. Not only cost competitiveness but also technological excellence of SMEs is essential for the vitality of economy, and the balance between large companies and SMEs also can be facilitated by the growth of SMEs. What should be done for this? Creation of small but strong SMEs, that is, small giant enterprises (SGEs).
This study tried to discover the growth factors needed by SMEs in becoming SGEs which can exert their power in the global market. Based on the sample from a group of Korean government-selected candidates for SGEs, which is called 'World Class 300 companies', we tested hypotheses focusing on the analysis on the relationships between the core growth factors. The relations between innovation capability, talent management, and transformational leadership as well as the impact of these on the subjective and objective organizational performances were analyzed.
Empirical analysis supported the significant strong relationships between growth factors and ROE(objective performance) as well as job satisfaction(subjective performance). The mediation effect of leadership between the innovation capability as well as talent management and performance was found in this study.
These results imply the importance of SGEs' ability to innovate, secure talent, and furtherly, having proper leadership which bridges them to the performance. This study shows that securing systematic talent management and investing in them for retention are indispensable to attain better returns on investments. The paper suggested that transformational leadership is effective for the growth of SGEs. This also contributed to connecting the organizational unit research and individual-level leadership. Leadership is perceived differently by individuals because of the changing patterns of leadership along with time and situation. We discussed some theoretical backgrounds on these findings.
Practical implications are also suggested, that is, the importance of R&D investment to facilitate the innovation capability and systematic talent management to secure professional manpower. Transformational leadership is a key driving force in the Korean context as it would be difficult to achieve outstanding results without appropriate leadership exercise.
Therefore these results suggest that Korean economy requires systematic development of ecosystem for SGEs and government-level support to secure core growth factors considering the poor resources of the domestic SGEs. Some limitations related with sample, single-level analysis, construct of SGEs are also discussed.

KCI등재

4T&D Investment Determinants among South Korean SMEs: Integrative literature review on training and development investment

저자 : Dong Yul Jung , Seojung Lee

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 97-130 (34 pages)

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This study explored the determinants of training and development (T&D) investment in SMEs. This review on the determinants of T&D in the enterprise is for that T&D can act in the right place. This study derives integrative conclusions from literature analysis related to the subject of education and the training investment decision of SMEs. We searched the articles on T&D investment of SMEs (Korean and foreign context) via Keywords 'enterprise,' 'T&D,' 'T&D investment,' and 'investment decision factors.' The analysis criteria are based on the following four areas of HRD definition; personal development, career development, organizational development, and performance management. Since this study has a particular interest in SME, T&D determinants, the four-term has revised as the four terms follow; learner characteristics (personal development), organizational characteristics (organizational development), financial characteristics (performance management; since this study aims to find investment determinants), and job characteristics (career development).
What we have found from this study are as follows. First, Korean SMEs conduct all-inclusive types of T&D. There were no boundaries in the curriculum, from general skill to job specific skill development. Besides, the T&D motivator is not only the corporate itself but also Employee Skill Development Policy, the support at the national level. The company provides financial assistance for investing in T&D as well. Second, the literature review regarding investment in T&D were mostly qualitative research. T&D investment features defined into four shares; job, organization, finance, and learner characteristics. However, studies method on T&D investment outcomes vary, but a few studies show that relatively few corporates consider investment features before conceded the T&D program. Third, the determinants of the T&D investment of SMEs vary. The determinants in every four areas show exceptional findings. Even it is for SMEs; there is no universal reason to invest in T&D. It differs in size, finance structures, and related tasks. However, the overall trends in determinants were on diversity in recent years. SMEs are making efforts to provide training that meets the needs of corporates and employees both. SMEs' T&D investment determinants are wide-ranging according to their size, finances, and related jobs. Nonetheless, the overall determinants of training are initiated to the worker (training consumer) needs.

KCI등재

5가족친화제도에 대한 유용성 지각과 근로자 행동 간 관계 : 일-가정 균형 만족도의 매개효과

저자 : 라미진 ( Mijin Ra ) , 홍윤희 ( Yoonee Hong ) , 류성민 ( Seongmin Ryu )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 131-156 (26 pages)

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Social exchange theory is an exchange relation that is based on transactions in an organizational context. People tend to maintain equity in relation to other people or objects. Organizational situations are exchanges based on transactions. When you receive something beneficial, you will act in the direction of repayment. Work-family issues related to the psychological or physical state of the individual were treated as the outcome variables, but there was not much research on the organizational behavior of the organizational members. Based on the results of a few previous researches, it is analyzed that if a family-friendly system that helps oneself and their family members are useful to a worker and his or her family members, it affects the behavior and attitude of the individual positively.
Employees who are highly satisfied with the work-family reconciliation policy are perceived as receiving recognition, investment, and support from the organization, thereby forming a trust in the organization. Recently, as competition between organizations has become more intense than ever, and all situations surrounding the organization are changing rapidly, there is a growing voice that voluntary efforts and activities are important for achieving organizational goals more than those defined for individual members. Therefore, when the employee's satisfaction with work-family reconciliation policy matches or is higher than the value emphasized in the organization or occupation, the employee is more motivated and more committed to the organization by changing behavior and attitude.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of perceived usefulness of family - friendly system on the behavior of workers by integrating the two needs of this study and to examine the effect of work - family balance satisfaction as a factor mediating this relationship. In other words, we examine how the perceived usefulness of the family-friendly system affects the work-family balance satisfaction, in-role performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. We also examine how work - family balance satisfaction affects employee performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, through this relationship, the effect of the perceived usefulness of the family - friendly system on the behavior of workers is examined in an integrated manner. Through the verification of this relationship, this study aims to contribute to the expansion of the theoretical discussion in the work - home research and suggest the direction of the family - friendly system which is actually helpful to the workers.

KCI등재

6변혁적리더십과 과업성과의 관계 : 개인-환경적합성의 조절효과를 중심으로

저자 : 최우재 ( Woojae Choi )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 157-179 (23 pages)

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This study examined the effect of transformational leadership on an individual's task performance. In particular, the moderating effects of person-environment fit were regarded as a contextual factor. The results showed that transformational leadership had a positive impact on an individual's task performance. Also it has been shown that the relationship between transformational leadership and an individual's task performance was moderated by person-environmental fits including person-job fit and person-organization fit. In order words, the stronger the perosn-environment fits the stronger the relationship between transformational leadership and an individual's task performance.
This study addressed that transformational leadership has a positive impact on the effectiveness of individual level. These results contributes to expanding the knowledge of existing studies of transformational leadership. Existing studies has shown that transformational leadership had a positive impact on individual attitudes and performance. However, little has been known about the context where the effects could be increased or decreased. The results of the study presented that person-job fit and person-organization fit were critical situational factors which could bring change on the relationship between transformational leadership and its outcomes.
This study has practical implications as well as theoretical implications. One is that transformational leadership promotes a sense of common goal. The more they approach problems in various ways, the more they help not only achieve their own goals. The requirements charged to individuals in an organization needs to clearly present specific guidance on the responsibilities and roles given by groups or teams. Additionally, organizations need to make efforts to inform members that individual efforts to achieve common goals can be helpful in personal task performance due to knowledge, information, experience, and know-how acquired through the interaction of the process of trying to gain common goals.
Managers need to develop their own leadership competency model. It is possible to design a sub-factor of transformational leadership in the model. With the leadership competency model, managers can design leadership development programs and modify current development programs. Thus, the development of HR analytics techniques contributes to the improvement of individual and organizational performance by more systematically matching the skills, knowledge, experience, achievement, characteristics and abilities required by an organization or team.
Although it was supported that transformational leadership has a positive impact on an individual's task performance, and that person-environment fit can strengthen the relationship, there are several limitations. In this line, this study also presents some agenda for future studies.

KCI등재

7정부의 역할이 기술혁신 성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 : 한국 제조업 산업을 중심으로

저자 : 우지환 ( Jihwan Woo ) , 김나리 ( Nari Kim ) , 김영준 ( Youngjun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 181-206 (26 pages)

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The lifespan of the enterprises is decreasing over the years. This means that the success of the past does not necessarily guarantee the survival of the companies. Therefore, companies pursue technological innovations in order to survive from the fierce domestic and international competition. They also try to gain competitive edge in the market or reduce production costs through technological innovation. In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution where the industry is newly changing its structure, the technological innovation is gaining more importance. Only the ones who successfully go through the technological innovation can adjust to the new industrial landscape, and those who don't will disappear from the market.
Technological innovation is very important for the government as well. It is beneficial for the government to have the companies that are competitive in the global market through technological innovation, because they can contribute to the domestic economic growth by increasing tax revenue and employment. Therefore, governments support the domestic companies to enhance technological innovation performance while regulating them for socio-economical reasons.
This paper empirically analyses the role of the government in increasing the technological innovation performance, mainly focusing on 4,000 Korean manufacturing companies. For the analysis, Korean Innovation Survey (KIS) provided by the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI) is used.
Based on the empirical analysis, it was found that governmental support can provide positive effect on both product innovation and process innovation. On the other hand, government regulations showed negative effects on both kinds of innovations. Finally, government policies had a controlling effect on the relationship between regulations and product innovation, and between government support and process innovation as well.
The results from this paper can give strategic insights to the companies' top level management on how to utilize the governmental innovation support and regulations. Moreover, the paper can be helpful for the government in developing technological innovation policies that can foster higher performance of the companies.

KCI등재

8중소기업 CEO의 기술마케팅역량, 경쟁전략, 사회적 공헌활동이 경영성과에 미치는 영향

저자 : 신정욱 ( Jeong Wook Shin ) , 함상우 ( Sang Woo Hahm ) , 곽원준 ( Won Jun Kwak )

발행기관 : 한국생산성학회 간행물 : 생산성논집(구 생산성연구) 33권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 207-231 (25 pages)

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According to 'The Federation of Korean Industries', the proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) among Korean commercial firms in 2013 is approximately 99.9%. It is necessary to make various efforts for the business performance of SMEs, which make up the majority of Korean industry. In particular, sustainability growth, efficient use of resources and differentiation strategies will have a positive impact on SMEs' competitive advantage. This paper focuses on SMEs' sustainability management and growth. Based on recent empirical and theoretical perspectives, this study explains the positive impact of corporate social responsibility of address companies. This process demonstrates the CEO's technical marketing capability, competitive strategy, and responsive corporate social responsibility. As a result of the empirical analysis, the CEO's technical marketing capability was positively influenced by the company's competitive strategy. In addition, the responsive corporate social responsibility of SMEs have proven to increase the impact of cost leadership strategies on management performance. SMEs are not actively involved in corporate social responsibility due to poor short-term achievements, lack of resource in charge of these activities. In this literature, this study argues that responsive corporate social responsibility enhance the effectiveness of management strategies. Furthermore, this paper has the academic significance of identifying the relevance of CEO's technology marketing capacity, corporate competition strategy, and responsive corporate social responsibility in SMEs.

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