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EWHA SAHAK YEONGU (A Bulletin of the Ewha Historical Institutions)

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1966)~60권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 637
이화사학연구
60권0호(2020년 06월) 수록논문
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1미국공사 알렌의 사회적 관계와 협력망 - 스티븐스와의 협력관계를 중심으로 -

저자 : 김현숙 ( Kim¸ Hyun-sook )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-37 (37 pages)

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This study examines the characteristics and distribution statistics of Allen's social network by classifying 2,631 letters left by him according to nationality, region, period and occupation. Letters reflect Allen's public network, with statistics showing that his acquaintance numbered 708 of 13 countries. It was confirmed that he had the closest and most frequent relationship with his American acquaintance and they were the American mainstreams such as politicians, generals, diplomatic personnels, firm CEO, intellects and media figures. They were his valuable social capital.
It was confirmed that Allen's social network in Joseon was also composed of top-ranking politicians, diplomats, missionaries and businessmen and was concentrated in Seoul and Incheon areas. Allen did his best to establish and manage the pro-U.S. cooperation network in Joseon. He reached to the highest position in Joseon society by various methods such as making 'blood ties' with high-ranking officials, borrowing Korean royal and aristocratic cultures and asserting superiority in the consumption of Western culture. The social network in Korea was his valuable social capital and was used in an effective way for obtaining interests and ambassadorial position.
In this study, I also carried out qualitative research focused on the Allen's relationship with D. W. Stevens. The relationship with Stevens illustrates Allen's power-oriented tendency. Allen was a good cooperator in the process of Steven's appointment and settling down as the Korean foreign advisor. He wrote “WHO”S WHO KOREA” which had the propensity analysis and valuable informations of top ranking Korean officials. Allen also expanded his own pro-U.S. cooperative network to Stevens. In return, he sought to use the assistance of Stevens in maintaining his office and in succeeding various interest businesses. When all this failed and when he was dismissed from his office, his social cooperative networks were dissolved as well.

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2로작부(盧作孚)와 사천(四川) 북배(北碚)의 향촌건설운동

저자 : 최은진 ( Choi¸ Eun-jin )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 39-69 (31 pages)

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Unlike the leading figures of the educational circles of the period, Lu Zuo-fu did not receive the benefits of regular education, but participated in the revolution due to the enthusiasm for Sun Yat Sen's three principles of the people's. He devoted himself to educational work in order to build China into a modernized country. As his educational work was hindered from warlords' intensified disputes, he tried to turn his attention to business and graft its outcome onto the educational activities.
He emphasized the provision of material environment with modernization to overcome feudal practices. For this he advocated active introduction and utilization of Western knowledge and technology, moreover the accumulation of capital and the training of human resources which were important to achieve modernization. To this end he was ready to cooperate with the enlightened warlords and organize or mobilize the people through education.
The people were attracted to the benefits such as job creation through Lu Zuo-fu's enterprise, and they were exposed to new modern culture and art activities, resulting in the improvement of local residents. Human resource development focused on technology education in close connection with industrial policy, which led to the supply of human resources necessary in the actual field. Regarding the improvement of material environment, he aimed to build infrastructure equal to the city level in the local areas and achieved considerable results. Connecting the establishment of a company with the creation of jobs and fostering of human resources was also the realization of Sun Yat Sen's three principles of the people's at the local level.
In fact, these activities were realistic approach in Sichuan which was recognized Xiajiang(下江) in China at the time. Lu Zuo-fu also could avoid conflicts with native forces that were common in other intellectuals' movements.
While the existing rural reconstruction movement started from educational sector and then gradually extended to various agricultural projects, it was the difference and characteristics of Lu Zuo-fu-led movement that he connected the corporate operations with educational activities, pursuing the urbanization and modernization of countryside.

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3'외적에 대한 공포(metus hostilis)'와 로마 공화정 쇠퇴의 상관관계에 대한 살루스티우스의 해석

저자 : 이지은 ( Lee¸ Ji-eun )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 71-108 (38 pages)

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Carthage who had collided with Rome for over a century from 264 BCE on, was finally defeated by Rome in 146 BCE and integrated into the Roman Empire. The fall of Carthage is perpetually remembered as a symbolic event by which Rome's supremacy in the Mediterranean world was confirmed. The victory in 146 BCE was at the same time considered as the beginning of the Roman Republic's decline and fall. At least that was the opinion of the historian Sallutius Crispus. He paid great attention to explore and record the signs and symptoms of the corruption and decline that coloured Roman society and its citizens ever since the defeat of her arch-enemy Carthage. Sallust said that the most fundamental cause of the late Roman republic's moral decline and fierce internal conflict was the disappearance of 'metus hostilis (fear of external enemies),' especially the fear for the powerful enemy Carthage. In all his historical works Sallust constantly claimed that it was the threat from foreign enemies that played an important role in helping Roman citizens to promote collective unity through common good and for the Republic. However, as Rome gained dominance in the Mediterranean, such 'fear' was removed. Furthermore, as peace and material abundance persisted, Roman society was soon overwhelmed with greed, ambition, and discord amongst its own citizens.
The purpose of this article is to explore how Sallust explained the concept of 'metus hostilis' in his own historical works and what it means for modern scholars in understanding the history of the Roman Republic. To accomplish this aim, first, Roman writers before and after Sallust will be examined by focusing on how they perceived the threat of powerful external enemies and its influence over the Roman Republic. This will provide a helpful and broader context for Sallust's historical insight. The next section deals with how Sallust describes the dynamics between the fear of external enemies and the historical changes in Roman society in the late Republic period. In this section, the focus will be laid mainly upon Sallust's two later works, Bellum Iugurthinum (41-42) and Historiae (1.11-12M), in order to understand similarities and dissimilarities of Sallust's views on the impact of 'metus hostilis' with other writers who are explored in the second section. Based on this, the final section will investigate how Sallust's view on the influence of 'fear for enemies' over the Roman Republican history was embodied in selecting and recording actual historical events in his works. It will be also demonstrated how his interpretation of the historical development of Roman society was influenced by historical reality (not only by his own moral judgement) of the late Republic through analysing the popular speeches delivered by the two plebeian tribunes Gaius Memmius (BJ 31) and Licinius Macer (Historiae 3.48M).

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4타키투스의 『연대기』 속 대(大) 아그리피나 다시 보기

저자 : 배소연 ( Bae¸ So-yeon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 109-150 (42 pages)

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본 논문은 로마 제정 초기 그녀의 이름을 딴 파당(partes Agrippinae)을 이끈 것으로 알려진 대(大) 아그리피나(Agrippina the Elder; 생몰년: 기원전 15년~기원후 33년)를 재조명하였다. 아그리피나는 초대 황제 아우구스투스의 손녀라는 점에 긍지를 가지고 있었으며 게르마니쿠스(Germanicus; 생몰년: 기원전 15년~기원후 19년)와의 사이에서 아홉 명의 자식을 낳아 모범적인 가정을 꾸렸다. 그러나 그녀는 생각하는 바를 숨길 줄 모르는 단점을 지녔다. 어머니 리비아가 아우구스투스와 결혼하면서 황실에 편입되었으며 위선자로 불릴 정도로 속을 감추는 것으로 악명 높았던 티베리우스 황제(Tiberius; 재위: 기원후 14~37년)와 아그리피나는 여러 면에서 상극일 수밖에 없었다. 타키투스(Tacitus)가 티베리우스와 아그리피나 간의 갈등이 심화하는 과정을 다룬 『연대기』 4권을 통해 필자는 아그리피나가 자신과 아들들의 파멸 과정에서 그 어떤 정치력도 발휘하지 못했다는 점을 확인했다. 여성의 정치 행위가 불가능했던 고대 로마에서 아그리피나가 본인의 이름을 딴 파당을 이끌었다는 기록은 후대에 그녀가 황실 정치에 뛰어든 여성 정치인으로 여겨지게 만들었다. 그러나 이 파당은 황실 일원이 되려는 야망을 품었던 근위대장 세야누스(Sejanus; 생몰년: 기원전 20년~기원후 31년)가 티베리우스로 하여금 그가 예전부터 아그리피나에 대해 품고 있던 의심을 증폭시키기 위해 쓴 수단일 뿐이었다. 아그리피나의 파당이라 불린 모임의 실체는 아그리피나와 친분이 깊었던 몇 명에 불과했고, 다가오는 위험에 불안해진 아그리피나는 자신의 불안을 티베리우스에게 직접 표출하는 악수를 두었다. 타키투스의 『연대기』 4권에 나타난 아그리피나의 무력함과 정치력 부재에 비추어 볼 때, 대 아그리피나가 파당을 이끌어 정치력을 발휘했다는 해석은 티베리우스와 아그리피나의 관계에 대한 타키투스의 기술을 잘못 이해한 결과라 할 수 있다.

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51-2세기 로마 교회의 다양성과 분파성

저자 : 정기문 ( Jung¸ Gi-moon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 151-173 (23 pages)

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It is very important to understand the development of the Roman Church, considering its status in the early Christianity. Previous studies of the church have shown a tendency to view the Roman church as a single unified church. This paper examined that the Roman Church consisted of several house churches until the third century, and the factions of house churches were very strong. There were three factors that strengthened the factions of the house churches.
First, the Roman churches of the first and second centuries consisted of immigrants from various regions. Since Rome took over the Mediterranean world in the second century BCE waves of immigration had formed strongly throughout the empire. In the Pax Romana, many moved from the East to Rome. During this time, the absolute majority of the Roman population was foreign.
Second, the first century Roman church belonged to the synagogues of the Jews. There were dozens of synagogues in Rome in the first century, which were highly divisive. Since the synagogues were run independently, the Roman churches that belonged to the synagogues were also divided.
Third, the Roman Church in the first century was a secret association. Christians did not report to Roman authorities that they organized an association. It was difficult for them to gather freely in one place or have a centralized organization.
As these three factors prevented the Roman Church from forming a single unity, the Roman Church had not formed a unified body until the middle of the second century.

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6죽음 앞에 선 레지스탕스 - 독일강점기 프랑스의 피총살자 서한들 -

저자 : 이용우 ( Lee¸ Yong-woo )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 175-216 (42 pages)

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This article attempts to analyze the last letters written just before their execution by the executed for the resistance activities in Nazi-occupied France. These letters were published in seven volumes of Collections of Letters by les Fusillés from the Liberation to the present including 315 letters by 237 fusillés. These 21th century collections consisting of much more letters than the earlier collections were characterized by a lesser portion of communist-written letters. The portrait of an average letter writer was a communist male worker in his 20s from Paris and its environs, but men of different age groups, trades, regions and political views wrote the last letters to their parents, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, friends, etc.
The slogan they shouted most frequently at the end of their letters was “Long live France!”, and the most commonly found phrase in them was “Keep it up.” They worried about and consoled the others left behind rather than regretted their own fate and trembled in the face of death. Their letters not only showed positions and attitudes of the fusillés right before their execution, but also became the historical sources that testified the repressive measures of the occupation authorities and the French police such as torture, detention, etc.

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