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EWHA SAHAK YEONGU (A Bulletin of the Ewha Historical Institutions)

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1966)~61권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 644
이화사학연구
61권0호(2020년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1신라 진평왕 재위 전반기의 국정 운영과 정세 대응 ― 대내외 정세 변화에 따른 체제 정비를 중심으로 ―

저자 : 임평섭 ( Lim¸ Pyeong Seob )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-38 (38 pages)

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This article is to look into kingship and a ruling system in the beginning reign of King Jinpyeong. Previous studies have mostly examined the relationships with the king and elites in the perspective of 'kingship reinforcement' and 'making a ruling system'. In particular, kingship in the reign of King Jinpyeong has been characterized as autocracy or the starting point of absolute authority in the middle period. Different from the research trends, the article focuses on both domestic and foreign situations of Silla in the first year of King Jinpyeong. Through this perspective, this study tries to trace how king Jinpyeong handled immediate problems, which were resulted from territorial expansion in the reign of King Jinheung. Founded on the research, it will look forward to looking into dynamic responses of King Jinpyeong, rather than a dichotomous approach, such as conflicts of King and elites.

KCI등재

2전시체제하 일본의 국민학교 체련과(體錬科) 교육 ― 그 실제와 한계 ―

저자 : 함예재 ( Ham¸ Yejae )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 25-57 (33 pages)

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On entering into the (Second) Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Japanese society turned into the war footing. The Japanese Army, long been prepared for the total war, has been concerned about physical strength of young conscripts thereby the issues of reduced physical strength of the public emerged from the physical examination for conscription. Japanese Army pointed out the Japanese education as one of the causes of reduced physical strength of the public and so does the Ministry of Education that took the issue as one of major problems to be resolved.
Engaged the war, the educational system was revised by which the elementary education faced the sweeping change of an introduction of elementary school cultivating Japanese nationals in 1941. Children in the elementary school were out of subjects to be mobilized for the war however they were regarded and treated as young nationals as well as valuable human resources for the future. Thus, the measures to resolve issues associated with reduced physical strength were reflected in the course of education in elementary school, and in this context, the physical training education was intensified.
The time assigned to the lessons for the subject of physical training in a week, which corresponds to the course of physical education in the elementary school, had increased almost twice with changes in contents and objectives of the education. Regarding the objectives of the lessons of the subject of physical training, the physical training, as well as spiritual exercising, intended for the intensification of national power and defense strength. That is, the subject of physical training mediated the connection between mind and body of students, by which the physical body of individuals was transformed into the physical body of nation. In the course of lessons, the subject of military arts was selected as one of regular courses thereby the 'Spirit of Japan' emerged and consequently resulted in the systematic rearrangement in contents of physical training.
However, contrary to the objectives of education of national significance presented by the Ministry of Education, the ways of receiving educational courses in the actual education field exhibited limitations. The extensively enlarged objectives and complexity of contents in lessons for the education were regarded by teachers as estranging them from actual reality. Besides, the situation, lacking resources and foods, also limited the accomplishment of educational objectives of the enhancement physical strength through physical training and education. Consequently, the solution, for the issue of reduced physical strength which exerted the intensification of education of physical training in the background, was unavailable through employment of physical training and education.

KCI등재

3김마리아(1892-1944)의 교육관 ― 실력양성론 형성과 구체화를 중심으로 ―

저자 : 이방원 ( Lee¸ Bang-weon )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 39-72 (34 pages)

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Kim Maria was a “female Korean independence activist” who devoted her whole life for the independence of Korea. She said that “I married with the independence of Korea” with confidence. To understand activities of Kim Maria who sought the ways for independence and put into practice in her whole life, this study aims at investigating traces of forming, changing and developing her theory for fostering capacity as the way for national salvation in her life.
When she was young, Kim Maria grew up in the family who felt responsible for local community and in open home environment accepting Christianity. She expanded her responsibility to country and people as Japan invaded was realized. In her teens, she studied at Chungshin Girls' School which cultivated the Christian education and the spirit of independence she met fighters for independence at “Kim Brothers Store” which was managed by her uncles, Kim Yuno and Kim Pilsoon. She also cured soldiers who were wounded in the protest against the dissolution of Korean Army in 1907 in Severance Hospital. Through these experiences, she decided to devote her life for Korean independence.
During studying in Japan, she set up her resolute idea on the necessity of the education for women. She thought that education was essential to become “human” and women must be educated to be appropriate and helpful in Korea and committed to society. For Korean independence, she returned to Korea with the statement of the February 8th Independence Declaration and contributed to plan the March 1st Movement. However, she witnessed failures of the March 1st Movement and Korean Patriotic Women's Society in Korea and the division of Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai. She realized that fostering capacity could be base for independence and went study abroad to the United States of America.
When she started her study in the U.S., she already decided to devote herself to Korean education and contribute to the independence and development of Korea. In the U.S., She strengthened her capacity by studying in Park University, Chicago University, Graduate School of Education in Columbia University and New York Theological Seminary. Through these studying and other experiences in the U.S., she developed her theory for fostering capacity to the stage that a individual citizen must effort to have his own leadership, choose leader and cooperate for the success of activities of that leader. She thought that a individual citizen must be the pivot of society.
In her theory of fostering capacity, she had particular attention to the education for women. She had consciousness about the situation that a man was in center and a woman was excluded or in only auxiliary role. She thought that a woman was designated to be a “human” who can live freely. Her purpose of education for women was that a woman must go into the scene of missions of times equally with a man and stand as the independent subject of her own life and of the independence and development of her homeland. It meant that a woman must be the subject of independence beyond the auxiliary role.
Kim Maria's theory for fostering capacity was formed, changed and developed by her growth and having various experiences. The purpose of fostering capacity was not limited to the independence and expanded to the process of national development after independence. Her emphasis on education for women was not for only the liberation of women. She thought that men and women together must participate in the independence and development of nation. She did not leave her theory as only theory. After returning to Korea, she practiced her theory in teaching in Martha Wilson Seminary for Women and cultivated the spirit of independence.

KCI등재

4남송대 주희(朱熹)의 대외인식과 화이론

저자 : 박지훈 ( Park Jih Hun )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 73-100 (28 pages)

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During the Song(宋) dynasty, neighboring other ethnic countries such as Liao(遼,) Xi Xia(西夏), Jin(金), Yuan(元) were powerful. So they frequently invaded. Song and both Northern and Southern Songs were destroyed by them. On this background, to set up a relationship with those other ethnic countries, various discussions based on the Sino-Barbarian(華夷) theory had been developed. One of historical tasks of the Song period was to restore and establish political and ideological superiority and pride, through awakening the traditional sense of separation between the Chinese and the Barbarian. In the early Southern Song period, main stream's perspective was that co-existence of Song and Jin cannot be established on the world view of Sino-Barbarian idea and traditional 'Tian Xia(天下)', which cannot accept the status of reversal between Jin and China.
Zhu Xi(朱熹, 1103~1200), known as a collectivist of Neo-Confucianism, was active in the Southern Song Dynasty, when the harshest conflicts in Chinese history with the other ethnic countries existed. Since the Song dynasty, Northern ethnic regime gained such a power and became a huge threat to the Chinese. As the Chinese society faced such a chaos, traditional ethic orders were unprecedentedly destroyed. The 'Tian Xia(天下)' order, which places Han(漢) people in the center of the world, encountered a radical change and traditional Tian Xia view faced a great challenge. Also national consciousness of the Han people has never been raised before, due to the conflicts between the ethnic groups. Zhu Xi's foreign view was established on such backgrounds.
This study mainly explores Zhu Xi's perspective on foreign country and the people, and his opinion of opposing the advocates of peace, which formed the foundation of such foreign view. Also the contents of orthodoxy and Sino-Barbarian theory, which is deeply related to Zhu Xi's view, is considered. For Zhu Xi, criticizing the advocate of peace, he claimed that Barbarian(夷狄) is a creature which exists between a human and an animal, and it cannot be turned. Thus he emphasized Han people's legitimacy, expressed a nation-state view based on the “China the Great” view, and reaffirmed the sense of superiority of traditional Chinese culture. Also he emphasized distinguish of Sino-Barbarian and brought Han people's legitimacy into the prominence, to realize the Great China by the Han. His Neo-Confucianism was established as the governing ideology afterwards, which exerted a huge impact to the posterity.

KCI등재

5동위(董煟)의 『구황활민서(救荒活民書)』와 구황책(救荒策)

저자 : 李錫炫 ( Lee¸ Sukhyun )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 101-132 (32 pages)

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This paper is a review of the famine relief policy of “Jiuhuanghuominshu救荒活民書” compiled by Dongwei during the South Song period. Dongwei served as regional officials in various regions to relieve the famine. Through this experience, Dongwei felt the need for systematic relief and compiled the “Jiuhuanghuominshu”. This book is composed of three volumes and 拾遺. The first book is an example of the major famine relief from ancient times to the Song Dynasty, and the second book presented his own countermeasures and methodology for the relief of the famine. It consists of books and related discussions. The 拾遺 consisted of various discussions on famine relief and laws and regulations. The system of “Jiuhuanghuominshu” became a model for the compilation of professional “Huangzhengshu荒政書” in China afterwards, and it was introduced into Joseon朝鮮 and used to relieve famine.
Dongwei suggested five core policies of “famine relief救荒”: '常平倉', '義倉', '勸分', '禁遏糴' and '抑價有禁.' Among them, '常平' and '義倉' are systems that prepare for disasters such as famine. '常平' was originally a function of price control, but it relieved alertness by releasing grain during famine. The '義倉', which is led by the private sector to store grain, was evaluated as a '良法' that can relieve people suffering from starvation in the right place. '勸分' is a way to relieve famine by increasing the private food supply by encouraging wealthy people who can afford to supply grain at an appropriate price. '禁遏糴' means prohibiting interfering with local food exports during famine. This is to prevent the famine from worsening due to a kind of local egoism. '抑價有禁' means that in a famine situation, grain prices in the market should not be suppressed or food prices should not be controlled at low prices. In other words, profits through appropriate prices must be guaranteed to induce local merchants to come and supply grain.
In addition, '檢旱' emphasizes the proper reporting of the famine damage by local authorities. '減租' means that tax cuts should be given to farmers who suffered famine. '貸種' means that hungry farmers should not be urged to lend and repay food. '恤農' means that farmers should be treated preferentially over non-farmers, such as 遊手, when giving preference. '遣使' emphasizes that local leaders should take responsibility and implement oral measures. '弛禁' is to reduce the amount of money in the field. '治盜' emphasizes strict response to thieves during famine. Besides, it is '捕蝗', a corporation that catches grasshoppers. '通融有無' is made in the same way as 借貸內庫 and 賑 濟賑糶賑貸. '鬻爵' and '度僧' should be implemented only in an emergency while paying attention to side effects.
In short, the characteristics of the famine relief plan shown in Dongwei's “Jiuhuanghuominshu” is based on the traditional concept of '恤農'. In addition, it emphasizes the responsibility of local government officials. In addition, there is no fixed way to relieve famine, and it is said that it should be adapted to the condition of each region. Along with this, it values the self-regulated market ideology in famine relief policies such as '禁遏糴' and '不抑價'. The same is true of the argument that the supply of grain will be smooth only when appropriate prices are guaranteed to wealthy people during the '勸分'.

KCI등재

6청초(淸初) 삼번(三藩)의 난(亂)과 성경(盛京) 지역 주변정세의 변화

저자 : 임경준 ( Lim¸ Gyungjune )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 133-165 (33 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to examine the changes in the surrounding Mukden region during the period when the Revolt of the Three Feudatories occurred. When the Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out, Qing drafted a large numbers of troops from Manchuria, including Mukden, and organize an expeditionary forces to suppress the revolt. As a result of the mobilization of many troops, the defense system in Mukden area was temporarily hollowed out. In this way, when a military vacuum occurs, the situation surrounding Mukden becomes unstable. In other words, Burni of Čaqar Ulus, who belonged to Qing, rose in revolt, and hard-liners emerged in Joseon who were opposed to Qing, developed the discussion on Northern Expeditions(北伐).
In previous studies, the discussion on Northern Expeditions and the Bruni Rebellion was taken up as a separate research theme. On the other hand, in this article, i tried to restore these linkages by tracing the chain process of the outbreak of the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, military conscription in Manchuria, and the consequent military hollowing out of the Mukden region and changes in the surrounding situation. As a result, Qing revealed that it had strengthened its defenses in Mukden in response to the disturbing movements of Caqar and Joseon. As a result, Qing has strengthened its defenses in Mukden against the disturbing movements of Čaqar and Joseon. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, an international event, played a decisive role in changing the circumstances surrounding Mukden. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories should be positioned as a pivotal event in considering Qing's policy towards Manchuria.

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7청(淸) 가경제(嘉慶帝)의 친정(親政) 시작과 인사(人事)

저자 : 송미령 ( Song¸ Mi-ryung )

발행기관 : 이화사학연구소 간행물 : 이화사학연구 61권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 167-203 (37 pages)

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This article studied the guidelines for the Jiaqing emperor's state affairs, the maintenance of the central administrative system, and the characteristics of recruitment of human resources in 1799. After the Qianlong Emperor died in early January 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government. At first, the Jiaqing emperor declared the Xianyu reform after excluding Heshen from politics.
Before the Jiaqing Emperor declared the reform, he had already begun to tidy up the system in which the Grand Council and the Imperially Rescripted Palace Memorials were connected. Also the Jiaqing emperor tried to manage the state administration with the Prince Cheng. The emperor appointed the Prince Cheng as the Grand Councilor and gave him the authority to supervise the Board of Revenue.
Although the Jiaqing Emperor removed the privilege of the Grand Council and the Grand Councilors, the danger of becoming another Hesen has always existed. For this reason, the Jiaqing emperor reduced the scope of work that the Prince Cheng was in charge of. Finally, the emperor dismissed him from the Grand Council. Since then, princes could no longer hold major posts in the central administrative organization in the Jiaqing Period.
The Jiaqing emperor emphasized that he would handle all the work by himself from the beginning of January 1799. This was to create an administrative system centered on the emperor. The emperor valued the balance between the various government organizations.

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