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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1993)~62권0호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 668
몽골학
62권0호(2020년 08월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1몽골의 외국문학 수용과 오역의 문제 - 村上春樹의 <1Q84>의 몽골어번역에 나타난 오류의 유형화 시도 -

저자 : 유원수 ( Yu Wonsoo )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-16 (16 pages)

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이 논문은 2000년을 전후하여 두드러지기 시작한 외국문학의 몽골어 직접 번역이라는 바람직한 현상을 언급하고, 村上春樹의 장편소설 < 1Q84 >를 몽골어로 번역한 Жаргалсай хан (2014a, 2014b, 2015)의 공을 치하하였다.
필자 자신을 포함하여 몽골어-외국어, 외국어-몽골어번역자들의 작업의 질적 향상을 바라는 마음에서 < 1Q84 >의 몽골어번역에 나타나는 오류들을 모아 살펴보고 이를 유형화하였다. 우선 번역상의 오류를 (2.1) 형식상의 오류와 (2.2) 내용상의 오류로 나누고 형식상의 오류에서는 (2.1.1) 구조의 임의 변경, (2.1.2) 표기와 번역의 일관성 결여, (2.1.3) 오자와 탈자, (2.1.4) 외국어와 외국문자의 오남용에 대해 토론하면서 사례를 <표 1>부터 <표 7>에 정리하였다. 내용상의 오류에서는 (2.2.1) 일본어의 오독 및 오해와 확인되지 않는 몽골어 형태의 사용, (2.2.2) 숙어적 표현의 직역에 따른 부작용, (2.2.3) 사회문화적 배경까지 이해시켜야 할 경우, (2.2.4) 번역 하지 않기와 임의로 덧붙이기로 나누어 토론하면서 사례를 <표 8-1>부터 <표 11>에 제시하였다.
몽골어번역에 나타나는 유형의 오류는 정도와 빈도의 차이는 있어도 한국어번역과 영어번역에도 나타난다는 점을 언급하고 <표 12> 한국어번역에 나타나는 오류, <표 13> 영어번역에 나타나는 오류로 간략하게 제시하였다.


This paper briefly mentions desirable phenomena in firsthand translations of foreign literature into Mongolian from the 2000s, translations done without resort to Russian translations. It also makes favorable remarks on the achievement of Ochirhüü Jargalsaihan for Mongolian readers through the translation of 1Q84, written by Haruki Murakami.
The author of this paper analyzes and categorizes errors found in the Mongolian translation of 1Q84 into two categories: 2.1 Errors in form and 2.2 Errors in content.
Subcategories discussed in Category 2.1 Errors in form are: 2.1.1 Arbitrary change of sentence and paragraph structure; 2.1.2 Lack of consistency in transcription and translation; 2.1.3 Misspellings and omitted words; 2.1.4 Misuse and overuse of foreign words and characters. Examples are presented in seven different tables: from < Table 1 > to < Table 7 >.
Other subcategories discussed in Category 2.2 Errors of content are: 2.2.1 Misreading and misunderstanding of the Japanese words and phrases, and using unidentified Mongolian forms; 2.2.2 Side effects of literal translation of idiomatic expressions; 2.2.3 Translations to which sociocultural background knowledge should be provided; and 2.2.4 Not translating or adding words randomly. Examples are shown in seven different tables: from < Table 8-1 > to < Table 11 >. Author advises the Mongolian-Japanese translators to be more careful reading Japanese kanji and Sino-Japanese vocabularies in that a big part of the errors are caused by misreading and can be greatly reduced by paying a little more attention.
Stating that the above-mentioned types of errors are also found in Korean and English translations, some examples are presented in two separated tables, < Table 12 > Errors in Korean translation by Yunok Yang, < Table 13 > Errors in English translation by Rubin and Philip(2011).

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2四、五体《清文鉴》及其所收蒙古文词条比较研究

저자 : 高娃 ( Gaowa )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 17-27 (11 pages)

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本文简要介绍了四、五体《清文鉴》及其研究概况, 着重论述了该两部词典中的蒙古文词条的错别字、遗漏、串行等问题。同时对两部词典所见小字体注释的修改、删除、添加等内容进行对比研究。认为虽然两部词典中的蒙古文词条基本相同, 但是也有许多不同之处, 具有一定的互补性, 其对于蒙古文词汇或者蒙古文的书写形式都有一定的参考价值, 所以不能简单地被相互替代。这些词条中包含许多有关蒙古文发展演变信息, 对于书面蒙古语的研究来说是不可或缺的。


The current study briefly introduces Siti Qingwenjian and Witi Qingwenjian, and their research overview, focusing on such problems as the typo, omission, and serialization of the Mongolian entries collected in these two dictionaries. In the meantime, the author conducts a comparative study on the problems such as modification, deletion, and addition in notes written in small print in the two dictionaries. The study holds that although the Mongolian entries in the two dictionaries are basically the same, there are also many differences, and that they are with certain complementarities. They have their own reference value for Mongolian vocabulary or Mongolian writing form, so they cannot be simply substituted for each other. These entries contain a lot of information about the development and changes of Mongolian script, which is indispensable for the study of Mongolian language.

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3契丹文“氏族”及其他

저자 : 吉如何 ( Jiruhe )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 28-34 (7 pages)

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随着契丹小字研究的逐渐深入, 学界先后释出一部分表示契丹血缘组织和行政组织名称。在前人研究基础上, 笔者对新发现《耶律天你太师墓志铭》及相关碑刻文献进行深入考察, 发现新的一级社会组织单位。其在层次上低于“部”和“胞族”, 并出现在“弥里”和“房”后边, 应是一种基层血缘组织。通过对该字的读音、字义及出现环境的综合研究, 笔者认为可以将其命名为“氏族”。


With the in-depth study of Khitan small script, the academia has interpreted some names of blood ties and administrative units of Khitan. On the basis of previous studies, through the study of the Epitaph of Tianni Taishi in Khitan small script and other related inscriptions, the author identifies and interprets a new level of blood organization unit, which is lower than the ñ-ó-úr(face in Mongolian, a kin group)and ên-s(bone in Mongolian, a kin group), and often appears after the family organization unit “fang”. According to its pronunciation and context, the author holds that it can be named “shizu (clan)”.

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This article, a continuation of the author's research on such speech acts as smiling, crying and anger in Mongolian, examines the typological features of lexical and non-lexical means of expressing the speech act of fear as exhibited by the main protagonists of Tungalag Tamir (The Clear Tamir) by Ch. Lodoidamba, a work forever immortalized as the most famous novel of modern Mongolian literature. Specifically, this article identifies verbal and non-verbal instances of the verb ai- 'to fear, to be afraid' and its synonyms, as well as instances of laughter, crying, and anger in this famous novel.
Out of the 38 characters mentioned by name in the novel, we have analyzed 24 characters who are described expressing the speech act of fear, including monks, Chinese merchants, school children, Chinese revolutionary soldiers, and others.
Based on examples in the text of the above-mentioned characters expressing speech acts of fear, we can state the following:
a. As for specifically whom or what the characters were afraid of, the following are mentioned in the novel as inciting fear in specific characters: wolves, dogs, skulls, abstract and paranormal phenomena such as demons, and sins.
b. As for how many times each of these characters is described as expressing fear, the following summary can be made:
- The person who incites fear in the most people the most number of times is Tsakhiur Tömör. Tsakhiur Tömör scared the following characters from one to eight different times each: Specifically, he scared Tügjil eight times, Pürew Taij six times, Takhar Badarch twice, Takhar Damdin twice, a wealthy local twice, Pürew Taij's servant boy once, and a young boy named Khongor once. He himself was scared once by a shaman in a trance who said he would rip out his lungs and heart.
- Itgelt the Rich usually incites fear in Dulmaa, Doljin, Khongor, Dolgor, Solongo, Galsan, and Old Man Nyam, and he himself is on one occasion afraid of Khatanbaatar Magsarjaw.
- Erdene incites fear in Dolgor, Bat, Dowchin, and Pavlov, and he himself is afraid of his wife Dolgor and the great general Sükhbaatar.
As for the forms, structures, and semantic and functional characteristics of instances of fear expressed by characters in the novel through their personal expressions, as well as expressions of the opposite speech act -- i.e. that of anger -- as well as laughter and smiling, crying and melancholiness, the following can be said:
- Fear, as a human emotion, as well as anger, laughter, and crying, are widely expressed by means of verbal and non-verbal means of communication.
- In the Mongolian language, fear is expressed with verbs such as ai-, emee-, tsochi-, sandar-, xalshir-, xulchii-, xulgana-, xulchigana-, xulmalz-, nawtai-, nawtalz-, nawtagana-, serwelz-, and xashxir-.
- Phrases, expressions, and verbal and nominal compounds containing the verb ai- 'to be afraid' are highly productive. For example, ichix aixaa martax, aix setgel töröx, aix setgel ayalax, ain emeesen setgel, aix emeexiin zeregtsee, bayarlax aix zeregtsex, bayarlax aix xolildox, aix emeex bodol, aix emeex tuyaa zangirax, aix gaixax setgel, etc.
- In expressing the speech act of fear, human-related terms such as zürx 'heart', setgel 'mind, emotion', ünxeltseg 'pericardium', tsös 'bile', and süns 'soul, spirit', as well as nouns denoting abstract concepts such as intuition and instinct are actively used.
- Fear is also expressed through the description of human body functions. For example, zürx lüg lüg tsoxilox 'heart pounding', xooloigoo chichrüülex 'trembling voice', xooloi xerjignen muuxai duugarch nüd n' gyalalzan magjrax 'eyes glistening and voice gagging', and am n' ewlej yadan baix 'unable to squeeze words out'.
- Words and phrases expressing certain peripheral human senses are also used. For example, büx biye n' chichrex 'entire body trembling', zürx n' chichrex 'heart fluttering', xüiten xöls n' chiixrax 'cold sweat', magnain xüiten xöls burzaix 'cold sweat on one's forehead', magnain deeree xüiten xöls burzailgax 'cause to have cold sweat on one's forehead', and tsagaan tsarai n' ulaan bolox 'face turns red'.
- Fear is also expressed with special metaphorical phrases such as süns n' zailax '[scared to the point that] one's soul leaves', ünxeltseg n' xagarax shaxax '[scared to the point that] one's pericardium almost bursts', tsös n' xailax '[scared to the point that] one's bile melts', zürx n' xöörch amaar n' garax '[scared to the point that] one's heart foams and comes out of the mouth', and zürx baixgüi '[scared to the point that] one's heart is gone'.
- Human psychological crises are indicated with expressions such as xar darax 'to have a nightmare' (literally: 'to [have a] black [thing] press down [on oneself]'), xar darj züüdlex 'to have a nightmare' (literally: 'to dream having a black [thing] press down [on oneself]'), muujrax 'faint', uxaan aldan aix 'to faint with fear', uxaan aldax 'to faint'.
- As for who scares whom or who is scared of whom, this can be observed depending on the subjects' society, positions, power dynamics, thoughts and views, education and upbringing, age and psychological state, as well as specific characteristics of the novel's characters, their typology, formation, and differentiation.

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5아시아 북방유목민족 부츠형 신발의 조형적 특징과 변천

저자 : 이호정 ( Lee Ho Jung )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 53-91 (39 pages)

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Footwear has developed to both facilitate people's walking and to accompany their various lifestyles. This evolution can provide information about the individual user or symbolize one's thoughts and emotions. This study seeks to present research on the typology and classification of boot-style footwear that has developed through the ethnicities and cultures of northern Asia. The central Asian region has developed a wide variety of characteristics of boot-style footwear due to the cultural assimilation of its various ethnicities and cultures. The distribution of boot-style footwear was driven by the horse-riding nomadic culture of northern central Asia. Boot-style footwear appears to have originated and spread in central Asia and its culture of horse-riding nomads and has spread throughout most of the rest of Asia. It is a product of native culture but has evolved with a wide range of designs. The development of boot-style footwear of northern Asian reflects the various ethnicities, cultures, and history of the region. The development of the boot-style footwear discussed above was primarily dictated by climate, socio-cultural factors, and a complex process of assimilation.

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6契丹语动词“卒”考释

저자 : 苏龙嘎 ( Sulongga )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 92-100 (9 pages)

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契丹语动词形态是契丹语动词的一项重要研究内容。笔者通过考察迄今公开发表的契丹文碑刻文献中表示“卒”的契丹语动词不同形态, 观察到动词丙在句中用作“卒”和“无”。其中, 用作义“卒”时, 句中主语均为女性单数, 而作义“无”时, 句中主语均为男性单数; □□义为“卒”, 句中主语均为男性单数; □□(□夯)亦义为“卒”, 句中主语均为女性复数的现象。因此, 笔者认为契丹语句中确实存在主语与谓语间的“数”和谐和“性”和谐现象; 动词丙即与女性主语共处, 又与男性主语共处, 说明前人提出的“阴性可兼指阳性”规律亦适用于句中主语与谓语间的“性”和谐现象; 动词词尾□表示男性单数, 且只跟男性主语共处, 与前人提出的“阳性只指阳性, 不能兼指阴性”的论点一致; 动词词尾□(夯)表示女性复数。此外, 笔者通过“元音附加法”, 解释了□□及和“耶鲁”在语音上的联系; 而且考证了《高》凿刻年代或不晚于乾亨六年(1106年)。


The form of the Khitan verb is an important research content of the Khitan verb. By investigating the different forms of the verbs denoting “zu” in the Khitan inscriptions published so far, the author observes that the verb 丙 refers to “zu” and “wu(do not have)”. When it is used as “zu”, the subject in the sentence is female singular, while when it is used as “wu”, the subject is male singular. □□ denotes “zu”. When it is used as a predicatein a sentence, the subject of it is male singular. When □□(□夯)is used as a predicate of a sentence, the subject of it is female plural. Therefore, the author holds that in Khitan sentences, there do exist the phenomena of “number” harmony and “gender” harmony between the subject and the predicate. The fact that the verb 丙 goes with female subject as well as male subject proves that the rule “the suffixes and words that modify the “feminine gender” in Khitan have the function of modifying the “masculine gender”” put forward by the predecessor is also applicable to the “gender” harmony phenomenon between subject and predicate in Khitan sentences. The verb suffix □ denotes male singular. The fact that it goes only with male subjects is consistent with the argument “the suffixes and words that modify the “masculine gender” cannot refer to the ”feminine gender”” proposed by the predecessor. Besides, the author explains the phonological connection between □□及 and “Yelu(person name)”through “Vowel Appending Method”, and with textual research, holds that the chiseled year of “Gao” was no later than the sixth year of Qian Heng (1106).

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7Монголын ардчиллын бэхжилтэнд УИХ-ын сонгуулийн гүйцэтгэж буй үүрэг

저자 : Энх-АмгалангийнСаранцэцэг ( Sarantsetseg Enkh-amgalan ) , БүргэдийнМөнхцэцэг ( Munkhtsetseg Burged )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 101-121 (21 pages)

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ХХ зуун бол дэлхий дахинд их өөрчлөлт өрнөсөн зуун байсан бөгөөд хамгийн гол үйл явц бол нийгэм, улс төрийн хүрээний өөрчлөлтүүд хаа сайгүй өрнөсөн явдал юм. Монгол улсын хувьд ч энэ өөрчлөлтийн салхиар салхилсан он жилүүд саяхан. Монголд өрнөсөн тэрхүү улс төрийн өөрчлөлт нь олон талтай, төвөгтэй үйл явц байсан бөгөөд хувь хүний үзэл бодол, итгэл үнэмшил, эрх, эрх чөлөөнөөс эхлээд засаг төрийн бүтэц зохион байгуулалтыг хүртэл бүгдийг хамарснаараа онцлогтой.
Манай улс ардчилсан шилжилт хийгээд 30 жилийн нүүрийг үзэж байгаа хэдий ч ардчиллыг төлөвшүүлэх үйл явц хямралтай байна 2 хэмээн манай зарим эрдэмтэн, судлаачид үздэг. Үүнийг төрд итгэх итгэл сулрах, сонгуулийн үр дүнг шударга бус хэмээн үгүйсгэх, авлигалын төлөөллийн индекс өсөх, нийгэм, эдийн засгийн зогсонги байдал зэрэгтэй холбон тайлбарладаг. Тиймээс улс төр судлаачид, нийгэм судлаачдын дунд өнөөгийн Монголын нийгэм эдийн засгийн байдлыг шилжилтийн үедээ яваа гэх хандлага ихээхэн түгээмэл байдаг3. Хэрвээ үнэхээр шилжилтийн үедээ яваа юм бол чухам юуг, яаж алдсан учраас энэхүү шилжилт гэх үеэсээ гарч чадахгүй байна вэ, үүнээс гарах цаг хугацаа хэдий хүртэл үргэлжлэх юм бэ, гэдгийн учрыг олохыг эрмэлзэж, хичээх нь монголын эрдэмтэн, судлаачдын өмнө тулгамдаж буй асуудлын нэг яах аргагүй мөн.
Харин миний хувьд асуудлыг ингэж үзэх нь оновчгүй гэж үзэж байна. Учир нь шинэ, хуучин аль нь ч бай ардчилал тогтсон улс орнуудын аль алинд нь “ардчиллын хямрал” хэмээх үзэгдэл түгээмэл байдаг нь ажиглагддаг төдийгүй бүхэл бүтэн гурван арван жилийг дамнасан шилжилт гэж байх нь утгагүй юм. Тиймээс би энэхүү өгүүлэлдээ өнөөдрийг хүртэл зохион байгуулсан УИХ-ын сонгуулийн үйл явцад тулгуурлан Монголын ардчиллын үйл явцыг шилжилтийн үеэсээ гарч, бэхжилтийн үе рүү орох хангалттай нөхцөл бүрдсэн гэсэн санал дэвшүүлэхийг зорилоо.


The twentieth century was a century of great change in the world. Moreover, the most important process was that social and political changes were taking place everywhere. The winds of change have begun to blow Mongolia in recent years, as well. That political change in Mongolia was a multifaceted and complex process. In addition, it covered everything from individual views, beliefs, rights and freedoms to the structure of government.
Our country is facing 30 years of democratic transition. However, some of our scholars and researchers believe that the process of building democracy is in crisis.
However, there is a widespread perception among politicians and sociologists that the current Mongolian socio-economic situation is on transition period and this is not the way to look at the problem. Since, there is no transition that lasts more than three decades.
Therefore, the major objective of this study was to write briefly about the development of democracy in Mongolia and the parliamentary election process, which are directly related to these issues.

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8《해도태자령지비(海都太子令旨碑)》를 통해 본 청년기 카이도의 상황

저자 : 류병재

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 62권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 122-139 (18 pages)

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