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수록정보
23권4호(2012) |수록논문 수 : 14
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23권4호(2012년) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1기대수명 증가와 종신연금

저자 : 주소현 ( So Hyun Joo ) , 김세완 ( Sei Wan Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 1-24 (24 pages)

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개인의 기대수명이 증가함에 따라 개인들은 자신이 은퇴기간을 예측하여 준비한 은퇴자산보다 오래 생존하게 되는 장수위험(longevity risk)에 더욱 크게 노출된다. 지금까지 재무설계 분야의 은퇴연구는 은퇴 이후에 필요한 생활비를 충분하게 축적하기 위한 은퇴설계에 초점이 맞추어져 왔지만 장수위험에 대처하기 위해서는 은퇴 시점부터 사망 시까지 생활비를 조달하는 자산배분 및 인출전략을 포함한 은퇴자산관리가 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 기대수명의 증가가 은퇴기간 자금조달에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지를 종신연금을 포함한 전략을 비교함으로 살펴보고자 하였다. 구체적으로 본 연구는 연금화와 관련된 선행연구 결과를 고찰하고, 종신연금 가격을 결정하는 모델을 설정하고, 기대수명 증가와 연금화 정도에 따라 은퇴이후 소득조달 및 자산고갈 등을 분석하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이러한 분석을 위하여 자산의 수익률 및 사망확률 등을 확률변수로 가정한 시뮬레이션을 실시하였으며 종신연금이 기대수명 증가에 따라 은퇴이후 생활비 조달에 어떤 역할을 하는지 탐색해 보고자 하였다. 본 연구에서는 은퇴시점에 연금, 주식, 채권에 대한 의사결정이 이루어진다고 가정하고, 2011년 가계금융조사의 은퇴하지 않은 60세 평균가계가 주거를 제외한 전 자산을 은퇴자금으로 활용한다는 가정하에 연금화 비중에 따라 은퇴이후 자산고갈 시점, 평균 은퇴생활의 질을 도출하였다. 모델의 설정에서는 연금을 제외한 자산은 주식과 채권에 6:4의 비율로 투자된다고 가정하고 주식 및 채권의 수익은 로그정규분포를 따른다고 가정하여 연금에서 조달되는 자금을 제외한 적정 은퇴생활비의 부족분을 조달하고 나머지는 주식과 채권에 재투자 된다고 가정하였다. 연금가격을 결정하기 위하여 보험개발원의 6차 및 7차 경험생명표를 활용한 사망확률을 계산하였으며 6차에서 7차로 늘어난 기대여명의 증가에 대하여 연금화 정도(0~100%, 5% 간격)에 따라 자산고갈 시점과 평균 은퇴생활의 질을 분석하였다. 크리스탈 볼을 사용한 시뮬레이션 결과 기대수명 증가에 따라 연금수령액의 감소, 자산고갈 시점의 조기 도래, 평균 은퇴 생활의 질 감소 경향을 뚜렷하게 볼 수 있었다. 연금화 정도는 은퇴자가 원하는 생활의 질을 고려하여 수행되어져야 하는 의사결정임을 논하며 은퇴설계 및 은퇴자산관리 분야의 연구 및 실제 적용을 위한 제언을 도출하였다.


As individuals` life expectancy increases, retirees are exposed to greater risk of out-living their wealth. This longevity risk is one of the most serious risks to individuals who prepare for retirement, because when they do not have enough money to fund their retirement years, people will experience deteriorated retirement level of living and the cost for supporting elderly will be a great burden for a society. So far, research and practical focus of retirement planning have been on accumulating enough wealth for retirement, in other words, saving for retirement has been the major retirement planning goal for many people. However, retirement wealth management during retirement is also important as people`s retirement years become longer due to the increased life expectancy. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between increased life expectancy and life annuity effectiveness. Specifically this research tries to provide comprehensive reviews on previous research on annuitization, to set up a model to calculate annuity prices based on increased life expectancy, to explore average number of years of needing extra support in retirement to cover desired level of living, and to calculate average level of living in retirement years. Annuitization refers to converting retirement wealth in life annuity form and produce constant stream of income during retirement. Therefore, researchers have been suggested full annuitization of retirement wealth as a utility maximization strategy under longevity risk(Yarri 1965). However, annuity markets are under-utilized compared to annuity`s known benefits of hedging longevity risk. Many possible reasons of the annuity puzzle have been suggested in literature (e.g., Lockwood 2010; Vidal and Lejarraga 2004). One of the reasons of the annuity puzzle is the low interest rates and actuarially unfair set up of annuity prices due to the adverse selection of annuity products. Therefore, some people will prefer managing their retirement wealth by investing other financial products such as stocks and bonds instead of buying annuity products(i.e., annuitization). Previous literature has been compared the advantages and disadvantages between annuitization and portfolio management of retirement wealth and suggested utility maximization time of annuitization for retirees under various risk tolerance levels (eg., Dus, Maurer and Mitchell 2005; Kingston and Thorp 2005; Milevsky and Young 2007). This research tries to measure annuitization effectiveness on hedging longevity risk by measuring average number of years of needing extra support in retirement to cover desired level of living, and calculating average level of living in retirement years. Using 2011 Korean Survey of Household Finances, the average non-retired 60 year old household wealth was identified to simulate retirement income funding during retirement based on various levels of annuitization. To run the simulation, it was assumed that the household would use its entire wealth except its primary residence on funding retirement income. The retirement wealth was assumed to invested annuity and portfolio and the portfolio was assumed to be divided into 60% stock and 40% bond. The annuitized wealth level was varied 5% increment starting from 0%. Every year retired household would receive annuity income from the annuitization wealth based on its investment size and the shortfalls to their desired retirement income was assumed to be supported from the portfolio. The remaining portfolio asset after the shortfall withdrawal was assumed to be re-invested into stock and bond as 6:4 without any cost. The portfolio asset was assumed to follow lognormal probability distribution. The average rate of return and standard deviation for the past 10 years were used in the simulation. To set up an annuity prices, market mortality tables from the Korean Insurance Development Institute were used. To capture life expectancy changes, the two most recent market mortality tables have been used. The 6th market mortality table was published in 2009 and the 7th market mortality table was released in July 2012. Using Crystal Ball software, Monte Carlo simulation method has been utilized to explore the average number of years of needing extra support in retirement to cover desired level of living and average level of living in retirement years. After 10,000 simulation of each scenario it has been found that increased life expectancy negatively influences on the average number of years of needing extra support in retirement to cover desired level of living and average level of living in retirement years. As life expectancy increases, retirees will need to support longer years during retirement to cover desired consumption level using extra assets and the average level of living during retirement will be deteriorated. When retirees annuitize more portion of their wealth, they will need to support longer years with extra cost but the overall average level of living during retirement will be improved. The findings of this research suggested that retires and practitioners will need to consider their desired level of living and life expectancy in retirement asset management. This research utilized a model with one time decision at retirement therefore, the findings of this research could provide practical example of retirement asset management at retirement, even though phased decision making and gradual annuitization could be better options for some retirees. Readers should keep in mind that the mortality risk fees from insurance companies were not fully incorporated in annuity pricing model therefore; annuity income examples from this research are not fully comparable to commercial life annuity products.

KCI등재

2시장통달자의 집단성향을 고려한 고객도움행동 촉진 방안 연구

저자 : 김현식 ( Hyun Sik Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 25-44 (20 pages)

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서비스 고객을 부분 종업원으로 볼 수 있다는 시각이 공감대를 넓혀가면서 시장의 면면을 잘 알아서 주변 소비자에 일정한 영향력을 미치는 소위 시장통달자(market maven)가 주변의 일반고객 집단에 도움(helping)을 제공하도록 촉진하는 사례가 빈번히 목격되고 있다. 그런데 고객도움행동과 관련된 최근의 연구를 보면 보상을 통한 고객도움행동 촉진 가능성을 확인하거나, 일반고객 대상의 고객도움행동 촉진 인센티브를 조명하는데 그치고 있어 주요한 도움행동의 원천으로 주목받고 있는 시장통달자의 특성에 따른 맞춤식 인센티브에 대해서는 관심을 기울이지 못하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 마케터가 일반 고객 집단에 도움행동을 제공하도록 촉진하기 위해 높거나 낮은 집단성향을 지닌 시장통달자에게 비용보조와 성과보상 인센티브를 제시하고, 해당 시장통달자가 도움행동을 하는 순차적 게임 모형을 통해 시사점을 모색해보았다. 연구의 주요결과는 다음과 같다: (1) 시장통달자의 집단성향이 높을수록 서비스업체가 시장통달자에 제시하는 도움행동 촉진 성과보상은 줄이고 비용보조를 늘리는 것이 유리하다. (2) 서비스업체가 시장통달자에 제시하는 도움 행동 촉진 인센티브 총합은 시장통달자의 집단성향이 전반적으로 낮을 때에는 시장통달자의 집단성향 증가에 맞추어 적극적으로 제시하는 것이 유리하지만, 시장통달자의 집단성향이 충분히 높을 때에는 시장통달자의 집단성향 증가에 맞추어 줄여가는 것이 바람직하다. (3) 서비스업체는 시장통달자의 집단성향이 높을수록 더 높은 이윤을 얻는다.


Research in marketing finds many episodes of market mavens` helping other customers. However, most research has studied market mavens` influential function in the introductory stage of new product diffusion process. Consequently, very little is known about the market mavens` helping behavior mechanism in non introductory market situations. In this paper, we try to understand market maven`s helping behavior mechanism and find better way to stimulate market maven`s helping behavior. We investigate optimal incentive scheme for market maven of diverse collectivist consumer tendencies via game-theoretic modeling. Especially, we focus on the following two type of incentives often observed in the real world: performance-based bonus and cost-subsidy. We focus on the following issues: How do market mavens of high (low) level of collectivist consumer tendencies behave as possible market helpers?, What incentive level and structure is recommendable for marketers to stimulate market mavens of high (low) level of collectivist consumer tendencies to help other customers? We focus on the impact of market mavens` collectivist tendencies on the optimal incentive structure for marketers to stimulate market mavens to help other customers. So we consider two players in the game, a marketer and a market maven. Our model is of complete information game type. In our model, the marketer is the Stackelberg leader and the market maven is the follower. Our model is of two stages in a single period. Variables in the model are as following table. Π U g θ a a2 ζ2 aζ aη p firm`s profit market maven`s utility consumers` purchase potential in the reach of market maven market maven`s collectivist tendency helping level cost of helping firm`s cost for cost-sharing of aζ market maven`s actual benefit of firm`s cost-sharing performance based bonus to market maven price Stages of the game are as follows. Stage 1: Marketer sets cost-subsidy level(ζ), performance-based bonus level(η), and price of the service(p). Stage 2: Market maven sets helping effort level(a). Market maven gets cost-subsidy(aζ) immediately but gets performance-based bonus(aη) after performance verification. Since our model is a dynamic game, we try to find a subgame perfect equilibrium to derive useful implications. In order to obtain the subgame perfect equilibrium, we solve the problems using backward induction. In the backward induction process, we solve the problems backward from stage 2 to stage 1. By completely knowing follower`s optimal reaction to the leader`s potential actions, we can fold back the game tree backward. Equilibrium of each decision variable of the game is as following table. Decision Variable Equilibrium Firm`s decision variables  p  ^{*} = {1} over {26} (7+7g+2 theta ), zeta   ^{*} = {1} over {26} =(1+g+4 theta ), eta   ^{*} = {1} over {26} (3+3g-14θ) Market maven`s decision variable α^{ *}= { 1} over {13 }(1+g+4θ) Firm`s profit II ^{ *}= { 1} over {52 }(7+7+g ^{ 2} +4Fθ+8θ ^{ 2}+14g+4gθ ) Market maven`s utility U^{ *}=1-e ^{ - {ν } over {338 }(2+2g ^{ 2} -75θ+6θ ^{ 2}+ 4g+263gθ) } Our findings are as follows: (1) The higher gets the collectivist consumer tendency level of market mavens`, the higher portion of cost-subsidy is required relative to that of rewards in the equilibrium., (2) As the collectivist consumer tendency level of market mavens` increase, service firm had better increase total incentive in early stage but decrease in late stage. So, the optimal level of total incentive for the market maven makes inverted U shape along the collectivist consumer tendency level., (3) The service firm may acquire greater surplus through stimulating market mavens` helping behaviors when they have higher collectivist consumer tendencies. One of the major contributions of this study is that the current study firstly suggests some specific managerial implications for marketers in a service setting how to stimulate market mavens to help other consumers by using performance-based bonus and cost-subsidy especially under consideration of the impact of collectivist consumer tendencies of them.

KCI등재

3서비스접점에서 고객의 상황에 따른 판매원의 설득전략

저자 : 유애리 ( Ae Ri Yu ) , 김상희 ( Sang Hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 45-78 (34 pages)

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본 연구는 서비스접점에서 고객의 상황적 요소를 고려한 판매원의 설득전략에 대한 고찰을 통해 설득전략이 고객의 반응에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고자 한다. 고객의 상황에 따른 판매의 적용은 지금까지 적응적 판매(adaptive selling) 로 연구되어져 왔으며 주로 구매절차, 거래조건, 그리고 판매성과 등에 초점이 맞추어져 왔다. 그러나 실제 현장에 서 고객의 상황을 고려한 효과적인 적응적 판매에 관해서는 간과되어져 왔으며 고객이 어떤 태도를 취하는지, 그리고 그 이유가 무엇인지, 이에 따라 어떠한 판매설득 전술을 선택해야 하는지에 대한 구체적인 접근이 부족하였다. 따라서 본 연구는 판매원과 고객이 만나는 서비스접점에서 판매원의 적응적 판매에 관한 보다 구체적인 전술을 제시하고자 하며 특히 고객 상황을 고려한 판매원의 설득전술을 제시하고자 한다. 이를 통해 서비스접점에서 고객의 상황에 따른 판매원의 설득전술이 고객의 심리적 저항감을 감소시키고 판매원에 대한 고객의 신뢰를 증대시켜 고객의 수용의도를 높일 수 있는지에 대해 고찰하고자 한다. 연구결과 실용적 동기가 높은 고객들에게는 정보제공전술, 고객환심사기전술, 그리고 감성자극전술이 긍정적 전술로 나타났으며, 손실언급전술은 부정적 전술로 나타났다. 반면 쾌락적 동기가 높은 고객들에게는 감성자극전술이 긍정적 전술로 제안설득전술과 약속전술이 부정적 전술로 나타났다. 또한 시간압박을 높게 느끼는 고객들에게는 정보제공전술과 감성자극전술이 긍정적 전술로, 손실언급전술과 제안설득전술이 부정적 전술로 나타났고 시간압박을 낮게 느끼는 고객들에게는 제안설득전술과 감성자극전술이 긍정적 전술로, 손실언급전술이 부정적 전술로 제시되었다. 결과적으로 고객의 상황적 요소인 쇼핑동기와 시간압박에 따라 고객들은 같은 설득전술에도 서로 다른 반응을 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 판매원에 대한 신뢰가 높은 고객은 판매원의 제안을 수용하려는 의도가 높은 것으로 나타났다.


This paper discusses the Seller's Influence Tactics in the service encounter with due regard to customer's situational factors. Several studies have been made on Adaptive Selling by situational factors. Nowadays sales person plays an important role which can lead corporate image and customer`s behavior in service encounter. However, prior researches focused on the purchase process, conditions of business, and sales performance, there is little attention on how sales person uses influence tactics in the selling field. The dyadic view of adaptive selling study between a service provider and a customer is an important determinant of the customer`s positive attitude and behavior. However, most studies of adaptive selling have been focused on the side of sales person. Also, researches which concerned with customer needs are still in the superficial stage such as lifestyle, income, and education. And there seems to be little effort to discuss situational factors in the service encounter between customer and sales person. That is to say, the guideline of seller's influence tactic with considering that what is customer attitude and what is the reason of response has provoked attention. So in this article, I would like to explore specific influence tactics for adaptive selling in the service encounter by customer's situational factors such as shopping motivation and time pressure. Thus it conducted experiments to verify the effects of seller`s influence tactic, the differential effects by customer`s situation. One of the recent interest in service area is the increased importance of the person to person encounter such as interaction between buyer and seller for the successive result of marketing. Also this study investigates the impact that positive and negative response of customer by seller`s influence tactics give acceptance intention to seller`s proposal. The following results were obtained. First, when customer has high utilitarian shopping motivation, the positive influence tactics are information exchange, ingratiation, and inspirational appeals. However loss mention has negative influence to customer who has utilitarian shopping motivation. Second, when customer has high hedonic shopping motivation, the positive influence tactic is inspirational appeals, and the negative influence tactics are recommendation and loss mention. Third, customer who feels high time pressure during shopping can be positive affected by information exchange and inspirational appeals. One the contrary loss mention and recommendation are negative influence tactics. Fourth, customer who feels low time pressure during shopping can be positive affected by recommendation and inspirational appeals, and can be negative affected by loss mention. As it turned out, the customer's response can be different by shopping motivation and time pressure as customer's situational factor, even if sales person use same influence tactics. Fifth, customer who shows high level truth to sales person has higher intention to accept sales person`s proposal. Lastly, customer who has negative psychological reactance to sales person`s influence tactics does not have significant effect to accept sales person`s proposal. This study provides several implications for adaptive selling in service encounter. First, this paper documents seller`s influence tactics according to customer`s situations in the B2C. It gives different view of adaptive selling between sales person and customer. Second, it mentions that the shopping motivation and time for shopping, which sellers can easily capture in service encounter from customer. This two situational factors can be generalized seller`s influence tactics in service field to different customer. In the next, it discuss negative response such as psychological reactance but also positive response as truth for influence tactics. Normally, the influence tactics use to lead customer`s positive response. However irrelevant influence tactics can make a perverse disposition from customers. Lastly, it will provide useful information for managers and companies when they set a guideline of employee training and recruiting programs. From this paper, it brings different results to similar influence tactics by customer`s situation. The company have to recruit suitable person for the right man in the right place, because the ability of sales person to identify customer`s situation is important. Also they need to develop training and recruiting programs to coincide with the change such as service diversification and complication. For all that, this results have been limited in some ways. Firstly, it analyzed data from students who have similar pattern in their groups, so we need to spread throughout various customer samples for the future research. And then it is hard to look back their shopping experience and seller`s influence tactics accurately when they answered questionnaires. In the future research, the study develop way to check customer`s recollection more easily with dyadic  view between sales person and customer. Lastly, for further study, it is hope that will find other situational factors which can lead differentiations from customers and diverse customer`s responses.

KCI등재

4소비자의 식품안전 체감 및 역량척도 개발 연구

저자 : 유현정 ( Yun Jung Yoo ) , 주소현 ( So Yun Joo )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 79-104 (26 pages)

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사회가 발전하면서 소비자들은 다양한 위험에 직면하게 되었는데 건강한 삶은 안전한 먹거리에서 출발한다고 할수 있다. 하지만 근래에 들어 식품안전에 대한 문제점들이 수시로 발생하고 있으며 유통과정이 선진화 되었다고 믿고 소비했던 식품들에서도 안전성에 문제가 있음이 보고되고 있다. 이에 소비자들의 식품안전에 대한 요구는 점점 높아져 가고 있는 실정이다. 본 연구는 우리사회의 식품안전 수준을 객관적이고 총체적으로 파악하기 위하여 표준화된 소비자의 식품안전 체 감 및 역량 척도를 개발하여 식품안전사회 구현에 기여하고자 한다. 이를 위하여 국내외문헌조사를 바탕으로 연구의 이론적 틀을 마련하고 측정도구를 수집한 후, 전문가 자문과 델 파이조사를 수행함으로써 척도의 타당성을 확보하였다. 다음으로, 수정된 척도는 재조사법(test-retest)을 통하여 데이터를 수집한 뒤 변별력테스트, 상관관계분석, 신뢰도분석, 탐색적 요인분석, 확인적 요인분석을 통해 척도의 신뢰성을 확보하고 타당성을 검증하였다. 연구결과 식품안전체감 척도는 전반적 식품안전도, 식품생산ㆍ유통ㆍ제공안전도, 식품위해우려도, 식품별 불안도, 식품표시신뢰도의 5가지 하위 차원의 총 35개 문항으로 구성되었으며, 식품안전역량 척도는 식품안전에 대한 지식, 기능, 태도의 3가지 차원의 총 35개 문항으로 구성되었다. 본 연구를 통해 개발된 소비자의 식품안전 체감 및 역량척도는 그 사회의 식품안전 수준을 파악하고, 소비자의 식품안전요구를 조사함으로써 식품안전정책과 행정에 도움을 줄 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 차후 이들 척도를 바탕으로 식품안전지향성을 지수화 하고, 시계열적으로 조사를 실시한다면 변화하는 소비자의 요구를 파악하고 미래소비자들의 요구를 추정함으로써 보다 안정적으로 식품안전사회시스템을 구축하는데 기여할 수 있을 것이다.


Today`s consumers confront various risks in everyday life and safety issues related to food becomes one of the major issues for consumers as food-borne illnesses and diseases increases. Since 2000, Korean consumers have had great interests in well-being and among the various aspects of well-being, physical and psychological well-being have been in the major focus of consumer lifestyle. As such consumers` interests with food safety have been dramatically increased and leaded dramatic growth in organic food industry. Recently, many food-related scandals and accidents have occurred and these scandals heighten consumers` needs for better food safety. To gauge a society`s overall level of food safety, a comprehensive approach should be adopted. So far in the literature food safety has been studied with limited scope and coverage. Consumers` food safety orientation includes two distinct components: perceived food safety and food safety competency. Consumers` perceived food safety is a key component to gauge consumers` food safety orientation because it relates to consumers` basic attitudes about food issue. However, without proper knowledge and practice consumers` could not enjoy desirable level of food safety therefore, consumers` competency is also very important. Consumers` perceived food safety refers to the level of consumers perception about food safety and it includes consumers` awareness and evaluation about food issues. Previous research on perceived food safety have examined about five subject areas of food safety issues: consumers general perception about food safety, food safety issues with production and retailing, food safety policy and administration, food safety information and education, food labeling issues, and food safety concerns. Consumers` food safety competency refers to the knowledge, attitudes, and practice to manage food related task to achieve desired levels of food safety. Consumers` food safety competency sub-constructs (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, and practice) have been studies with various consumer groups on several food categories. The purpose of this research was to develop consumers` perceived food safety measurement and food safety competency measurement to properly gauge consumers` food safety orientation of a society. The measurement will be used to further develop an index of consumer food safety orientation. To develop consumers` perceived food safety measurement and food safety competency measurement, this research utilized expert reviews, delphi study, and test-retest analyses. First, a list of sample measurement items were gathered based on a comprehensive literature review. Specifically total of 54 questions in eight sub-constructs of perceived food safety were selected from literature to get experts review. The eight sub-constructs include overall food safety perception, food production safety, food safety policy and administration, food safety information, food safety threats, food safety concerns, trustworthiness of food labeling, and food safety education. For candidates of food safety competency measurement, total of 49 questions on food safety knowledge, food safety significance, safe cooking procedure, hand washing methods in handling food, interests in food safety, food safety threats, food purchasing behavior, food safety education, and concerns about food safety were selected. These questions were sent to three experts in the area to initial reviews and evaluation. Based on the experts` review each measurement sub-constructs were reorganized. Three subconstructs( food safety policy and administration, food safety information and food safety education) from the perceived food safety have been deleted and several individual questions have been modified before the Delphi study. From the initial list of food safety competency, a new and different sub-constructs of knowledge, attitudes, and practice were formed and forwarded to the Delphi study. The Delphi study was conducted with 19 experts in the fields and the two measurements were reviewed, modified, and reorganized. Total of 35 questions in 5 sub-constructs for perceived food safety and 35 questions in 3 sub-constructs for food safety components were included in a consumer questionnaire for test, re-test reliability test. Consumer data was gathered through online survey from 300 participants with 1 week time span between test and re-test. The survey data was analyzed using correlation test, reliability test, exploratory factor analyses, and confirmatory factor analyses. Further modifications of the measurement were applied to the measurement based on the reliability and correlation tests. The factor analyses results showed desirable levels of reliability and validity of the measurement. The final measurement of perceived food safety includes 35 questions on five sub- constructs of overall food safety perception, safety in food production and retailing, food safety threats, concerns with food safety, and trustworthiness of food labeling. The final measurement of food safety competency includes 35 questions on consumer knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety. The food safety practice includes examination on food condition, examination on food labeling, general food safety behavior, and food purchase behavior. The measurements that were developed from this research showed proper levels of validity and reliability. Therefore, these measurements can be used to gauge a society`s level of consumer food safety orientation. Further development on food safety orientation index will be useful to push forward to better level of food safety and increased levels of consumer well-being.

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5소비자의 윤리적 소비행동과 관련요인 분석

저자 : 허은정 ( Eunjeong Huh ) , 김우성 ( Woo Sung Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 105-130 (26 pages)

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최근 우리나라에서도 윤리적 소비에 대한 사회적 관심이 고조되고 소비자들의 윤리적 소비행동이 증가하면서 윤 리적 소비행동에 대한 실증연구가 필요하게 되었다. 본 연구의 목적은 소비자들의 윤리적 소비행동 수준을 파악하고 인구사회학적 특성에 따른 윤리적 소비행동의 차이를 분석하며, 윤리적 소비행동에 영향을 미치는 변수를 규명하는 것이다. 이를 위해 2011년 11월 온라인 리서치 업체를 통해 전국에 거주하는 성인 소비자 1,000명을 대상으로 질문지조사를 실시하여 자료를 수집하였다. 주요한 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 요인분석 결과 소비자의 윤리적 소비행동의 하위영역은 7가지-공동체운동, 절제와 간소, 공정무역, 불매운동, 적극적 구매, 상거래 윤리, 로컬소비-로 분류되었다. 7점을 기준으로 했을 때, 소비자들의 윤리적 소비행동 전체 평균은 4.44점으로 중간수준으로 실천하는 것으로 나타났다. 하위영역 중에서 상거래 윤리(5.24점)와 절제와 간소(5.05점)는 비교적 잘 실천하고 있지만 공동체운동(3.10점)은 중간이하 수준으로 행동하고 있었다. 둘째, 인구사회학적 변수에 따른 윤리적 소비행동의 차이를 분석한 결과 전체 윤리적 소비행동의 경우 미혼보다는 기혼집단이, 연령이 20대에 비해 50대 이상이, 교육수준이 고졸에 비해 대졸이상인 집단이 윤리적 소비행동을잘 실천하고 있었다. 윤리적 소비행동의 하위영역의 경우 인구사회학적 변수에 따른 차이는 각각 상이하였다. 셋째, 소비자가치, 심리사회적 특성변수, 인구사회학적 변수가 전체 윤리적 소비행동에 미치는 영향력을 분석한 결과, 물질주의 성향이 낮을수록, 이타주의 성향이 높을수록, 자신의 행동이 사회에 영향을 준다고 생각할수록(효과성 지각), 윤리적 이슈가 자신의 정체성에 중요하다고 생각할수록(윤리적 정체성), 교육수준이 고졸집단에 비해 전문대졸 집단이 윤리적 소비행동을 잘 실천하는 것으로 분석되었다. 7개의 하위영역에 대해 유의한 영향을 미치는 설명변수는 상이하였지만 전반적으로 심리사회적 특성변수가 소비자 가치와 인구사회학적 변수보다 상대적으로 소비자의 윤리적 소비행동에 중요한 영향을 미치고 있었으며, 특별히 효과성 지각과 이타주의가 중요한 변수로 나타났다.


Recently, there are enhanced social interest in ethical consumption and increase in consumers` ethical consumption behavior, both in Korea and in the world. Consumption is one of activities belonging to post-purchase process which is the last stage in 5-stage consumer buying decisionmaking consisting of problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase, and post-purchase process. Ethical consumption is used broadly to include selection, purchase, and disposition as well as consumption of products or brands. Ethical consumption behavior is defined as selection, purchase, consumption, and disposition activities to perform his or her social responsibility according to a consumer`s personal and moral beliefs. In spite of increased interest and activities in ethical consumption, there have been very limited studies on ethical consumption. Because many studies to find and explain characteristics of ethical consumers have been basically qualitative studies, there is strong need for empirical studies dealing with ethical consumption behavior. The purpose of this study is 1) to examine consumers` levels of ethical consumption behavior and subcategories of total ethical consumption behavior, 2) to analyze the differences in ethical consumption behavior, based on socio-demographic variables, and 3) to find variables affecting ethical consumption behavior, among ethical value variables, psychosocial variables, and sociodemographic variables. Independent variables include an ethical value category, a psychosocial category, and a socio-demographic category. The ethical value category consists of universalism,  benevolence, and self-direction. The psychosocial category includes materialism, altruism, perceived effectiveness, and self-identity. The socio-demographic category includes age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, and so on. For the study, data collection was conducted by an outside research company and data were collected through internet survey questionnaires filled out by the sample of 1,000 adult consumers. The important results of this study are as follows. First, factor analysis extracted seven subcategories of ethical consumption behavior from items measuring ethical consumption behavior. The seven subcategories of ethical consumption behavior are community activity, moderation &simplicity, fair trade, boycott activity, positive buying, ethics in business transaction, and local consumption. The mean score of consumers` total ethical consumption behavior was 4.44 on a 7-point scale, which meant that respondents performed ethical consumption behavior at a little over the middle level. In comparison among subcategories, respondents gave the highest score(5.24) to ethics in business transaction and the second highest score(5.05) to moderation & simplicity. Respondents gave the lowest score(3.10) to community activity. Second, in terms of the socio-demographic category, there were significant effects of marital status, age, and education level on total ethical consumption behavior. Specifically, married people, people in 50s compared to those in 20s at age groups, and people who at least graduated from a college in comparison with people who only graduated from a high school showed higher levels of total ethical consumption behavior. In the subcategories of total ethical consumption behavior, the effects of socio-demographic variables were different. For example, while there were significant effects of marital status, age, education level, and occupation on community activity, there was significant effect of only age on fair trade. Third, in terms of an ethical value category, a psychosocial category, and a socio-demographic category, the results of regression analysis showed that all of the psychosocial variables (materialism, altruism, perceived effectiveness, and self-identity) and an education level significantly influenced total ethical consumption behavior. Especially, altruism, perceived effectiveness, self-identity, and people who graduated from a 2-year college in comparison with people who only graduated from a high school had positive effect on total ethical consumption behavior, but materialism had negative effect on total ethical consumption behavior. Fourth, in terms of the 7 subcategories of total ethical consumption behavior, significant variables were different. The psychosocial variables were generally more important than ethical value variables and socio-demographic variables. Ethical value variables had significant effects only on community activity, moderation & simplicity, and ethics in business transaction. The effects of a socio-demographic category were relatively small. Household mean income had significant effects on boycott activity, positive buying, ethics in business transaction, and local consumption. An education level had significant effects on moderation & simplicity, local consumption, and total ethical consumption behavior. Finally, investigation based on standardized regression coefficients indicated that the psychosocial variables were more important for ethical consumption behavior than ethical value variables and socio-demographic variables and that perceived effectiveness and altruism were the most important two variables. This study has significance in that this study was an empirical study on ethical consumption behavior using internet survey with 1,000 respondents residing in all area of South Korea. The seven subcategories of total ethical consumption behavior constructed from major previous studies and then extracted by factor analysis will be especially useful as an instrument to measure ethical consumption behavior in future related studies. The results of this study suggest many important things related to ethical consumption behavior to policy makers and practitioners dealing with consumer affairs and marketers. This study found and verified three major categories affecting ethical consumption behavior, 1) an ethical value category, 2) a psychosocial category, and 3) a socio-demographic category. Though the effects were different depending on total and each of the seven subcategories of ethical consumption behavior, generally ethical value variables and psychosocial variables were more important for ethical consumption behavior than socio-demographic variables, and psychosocial variables in general had highest effects on ethical consumption behavior especially in terms of contribution to ethical consumption behavior. This suggests that consumer education can be useful in the area of less materialism (humanism), altruism, perceived effectiveness, and self-identity to spread and enhance ethical consumption behavior and that to sell ethical products and brands, marketers should more focus on market segments appreciating less materialism, altruism, perceived effectiveness, and self-identity.

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6고객등급하락에 따른 고객의 심리적 메커니즘에 관한 탐색적 연구

저자 : 이은미 ( Eun Mi Lee ) , 전중옥 ( Jung Ok Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 131-154 (24 pages)

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본 연구는 고객등급하락을 경험한 소비자들에게 나타나는 심리적 메커니즘의 본질을 보다 깊이 있게 이해하기 위해 위계적 로열티프로그램의 사용자들을 대상으로 심층면접하였으며, 고객등급하락에 대한 소비자의 인식을 구성하고 있는 요인과 이와 관련된 소비자의 내면적 특성 및 심리적 구조를 구체화하기 위해 Nvivo를 활용한 분석기법을 적용하였다. 그 결과, 지각된 고객등급하락으로 인한 심리적 메커니즘의 핵심적 구성요인은 크게 '고객등급하락에 대한 인지적 요인', '고객등급하락에 대한 감정적 요인', '고객등급하락에 대한 긴장과 갈등'의 세 가지 주요 범주로 구분되었다. 첫째, 고객등급하락에 대한 인지적 요인을 구성하는 내용은 '등급하향조정에 관한 제도 및 구조', '등급하락의 적용기준', '등급하향조정에 따른 보상 혜택의 축소', '등급 재상향조정 조건' 등으로, 고객등급하락이라는 정보 또는 상황에 노출되었을 때 소비자가 지각하게 되는 인지적 요소의 공통점이 발견되었다. 둘째, 고객등급하락에 대한 감정적 요인을 구성하는 내용은 '부정적 감정', '등급하락에 대한 무감정', '등급하락에 대한 무반응' 등으로 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과는 선행연구에서 제시한 바와 같이 지각된 등급하락이 부정적 감정을 유발시키며 이에 따라 소비자의행동반응을 이끌어낸다는 사실과 일관되면서도, 반드시 등급하락으로 인해 부정적인 감정만이 발생되는 것은 아님을 확인할 수 있다. 마지막으로 고객등급하락에 대한 심리적 긴장과 갈등의 요인은 '하락된 등급에 대한 심리적 불편함', '기업의 자신과의 관계에 대한 갈등', '등급하락에 대한 정당성 판단의 혼란스러움', '등급하락에 대한 결과의 애매모호함'으로 요약된다. 이와 함께 본 연구에서는 고객등급하락에 따른 심리적 긴장과 갈등을 지위부조화라 명명하고, 지위부조화는 고객등급하락의 원인과 결과가 대치됨으로써 형성되는 심리적 긴장, 갈등 그리고 불편한 심리상태로 정의하였다. 이상과 같이 고객등급하락에 대한 심리적 메커니즘을 제시하고 고객등급하락에 따른 양면적 반응에 대한 새로운 전략적 방향과 견해의 필요성을 위시한 시사점을 도출하였다.


In a competitive market situation, most companies try to find ways to differentiate themselves from their competitors. One of the strategies that strengthens their relationships with customers, which should lead to an increase in consumer``s loyalty, is the use of loyalty programs. The existing research concerning loyalty programs has mainly focused on positive effects. However, some researchers have discounted such effects due to the excessive costs of loyalty programs. Accordingly, the phenomenon of negative effects, which is caused by loyalty programs designed incorrectly, has a detrimental effect on firm``s performance. Hierarchical loyalty programs are “award preferred customer status” providing exclusive benefits to consumers who have exceeded a certain spending level(Wagner, Hennig-Thurau and Rudolph, 2009). In order to remain the preferred status, customers must maintain a required level of spending, otherwise, they will be demoted and lose their preferred status. In some circumstances, hierarchical loyalty programs cannot manage, especially when customer demotion occurs. Customer demotion is the degrading of preferred-customer status to consumers when they fall below a certain spending level. Wagner, Hennig-Thurau and Rudolph(2009), analyzed that customer demotion jeopardizes customer loyalty intention, due to an increased level of negative affect and a decrease in perceived benefits. However, it is not enough to explain a concrete psychological mechanism to deeper understand customers`` responses to status degradations. The existing literature for psychological structure on customer demotion is limited, but of high importance for marketers and academics. The objective of this study is, thus, to extend existing psychological mechanisms to specify the concept of customer demotion. We conducted an AFGI(Advanced Focus Group Interview) to those who have used hierarchical loyalty programs, and analyzed their textual contents throughout the Nvivo 8.0 software. The major components of psychological mechanisms when customers experience demotion are expressed with the 3 broad categories such as 'cognitive factor', 'affective factor', and 'psychological stress and conflict'. The sub-categories that describe the state of cognition in customer demotion are found: 'the policy and institution related to customer demotion', 'criteria of customer demotion', 'reduction of rewards', and 'requirements for re-upgrading'. In case of affect in customer demotion experience, we found the three major themes that are 'negative affect', 'neutral emotion', and 'non-responses'. These results are consistent with the fact that negative affect is led to customer``s negative behavior in previous research on customer demotion. It also indicates perceived demotion can evoke a variety of affect other than negative affect. The four sub-categories of psychological stress and conflict expressing feeling on customer demotion are found: 'psychological discomfort', 'conflict of relationship between firm and customer', 'the confusion of judging legitimacy on degrading', and 'ambiguity of perceived demotion'. In this study, thus, psychological stress and conflict on customer demotion are termed as status dissonancebased discomfort. This primary outcome of this study is to contribute developing the new psychological mechanisms of customer demotion. It also has the practical relevance due to helping managers in understanding how to develop management strategies on degrading status.

KCI등재

7브랜드 확장 시 확장 브랜드의 관련성 광고가 소비자 태도에 미치는 영향

저자 : 주태욱 ( Tae Wook Ju )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 155-174 (20 pages)

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확장 브랜드에 대한 커뮤니케이션 전략과 관련된 기존 연구들을 살펴보면, 주로 정교화 광고와 관련성 광고로 유형화하여 제시되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고 전략의 보다 폭넓은 적용을 위하여 기존연구에서 제시된 확장 브랜드와 관련된 광고 유형 중 관련성 광고에 초점을 맞추어 살펴보았다. 구체적으로, 브랜드 확장 상황에서의 모 브랜드와 확장 브랜드 간의 속성 차원의 관련성의 유형을 이용하여, 확장 브랜드의 관련성 광고 메시지를 두 가지 차원(속성 관련성 광고 vs. 비 속성 관련성 광고)으로 나누어 차별적 효과를 살펴보았다. 또한, 개인의 자기관과 관계 규범의 유형이 앞서 제시한 확장 브랜드의 관련성 광고 메시지에 어떠한 조절 효과를 보이는지 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 결과를 살펴보면, 첫째, 모 브랜드와 비 속성 관련성을 제시한 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고에 비해 속성 관련성을 제시한 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고에 보다 호의적인 평가를 하였다. 둘째, 소비자의 자기관에 따라 확장 브랜드에 대한 관련성 광고 유형의 효과는 달라졌다. 구체적으로, 독립적 자기관을 가진 소비자의 경우, 속성 관련성을 제시한 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고에 보다 긍정적인 평가를 한 반면, 상호의존적 자기관을 가진 소비자의 경우, 확장 브랜드에 대한 관련성 광고 유형에 따른 평가 차이는 없었다. 셋째, 관계 규범의 유형도 확장 브랜드의 관련성 광고 유형의 효과를 조절하는 것으로 나타났다. 공동체 관계 규범에 노출된 소비자의 경우, 비 속성 관련성을 제시한 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고에 보다 긍정적인 평가를 한 반면, 거래 관계 규범에 노출된 소비자의 경우, 속성관련성을 제시한 확장 브랜드에 대한 광고에 보다 긍정적인 평가를 하는 것으로 나타난다. 끝으로, 본 연구를 통해 얻을 수 있는 이론적 및 실무적 시사점을 살펴보았으며, 한계점 및 향후 연구방안에 대해 논의하였다.


Prior studies on communication strategies of brand extension categorize the strategies into elaborational ads and relational ads. This study focuses on relational ads to determine the various applications of advertising strategies of extended brands. Specifically, this research tried to find out the differential effects of extended brand`s relational ads in brand extension situations by using the relational types of the attributes between the parent brand and the extended brand and categorizing them into attribute relational ads and non-attribute relational ads. It also looks into the moderation effects of self-construal and relationship norms. The results of this study suggest the following. First, participants favored attribute relational ads of extended brands over non-attribute relational ads. Second, the effects of relational ad types of extended brands varied according to consumer`s self-construal. Those with independent self-construal showed positive attitude towards attribute relational ads of extended brands while those with interdependent self-construal did not show any significant difference in their attitudes towards the types of relational ads of extended brands. Third, types of relationship norms proved to have a moderation effect on the impacts of relational ads of extended brands. Consumers who have established communal relationship norm with the brand has positively evaluated non-attribute relational ads while consumers who have established exchange relationship norm with the brand favored attribute relational ads. Lastly, this study suggests the theoretical and practical implications, discusses its limitations and future studies.

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8부정적 사건 이후 기업평가 회복을 위한 CSR활동의 효과

저자 : 박은영 ( Eun Young Park ) , 윤창훈 ( Chang Hoon Yun ) , 박종원 ( Jongwon Park )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 175-191 (17 pages)

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본 연구는 기업에 부정적 사건이 발생한 후 기업에 대한 소비자들의 평가를 제고하기 위한 CSR활동을 할 때, CSR활동 영역과 부정적 사건 영역의 일치가 기업평가에 어떤 영향을 미치는지, 그리고 CSR활동을 언제 시행하는 것이 가장 효과적인지 살펴보았다. 실험 1의 결과, 부정적 사건이 발생한 즉시 CSR활동을 실시했을 경우 사건과 CSR의 영역이 일치할수록 기업 평가가 향상되었지만, 사건 발생 후 시간이 경과한 다음 CSR활동을 실시하였을 경우에는 사건과 CSR의 영역이 일치하지 않을수록 기업 평가가 더 향상되는 것으로 나타났다. 실험 2에서는 CSR 활동에 대한 보도 발표 시 기업이 사건에 대한 사과를 언급하는 것의 유무와 사건과 CSR의 영역 일치 정도가 기업평가에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 그 결과, 기업의 사과가 있는 조건에서는 사건과 CSR 영역이 일치할수록 기업의 평가가 높아진 반면, 그러한 언급이 없는 조건에서는 사건과 CSR 영역의 일치 정도는 유의한 효과를 보이지 않았다. 아울러 이러한 CSR 효과는 용서라는 심리적 기제에 의해 매개되는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과는 기업이 당면한 위기상황 하에서 CSR활동의 효과적인 방향을 제시하여 전략적으로 위기를 극복할 수 있는 시사점을 제공해준다.


The present research investigates the effect of a CSR activity on the recovery of company evaluations after a negative accident/scandal occurred. Two experiments demonstrate that a CSR is effective in recovering the company evaluation but the magnitude of this effect is significantly moderated by domain relatedness between the CSR and the accident, timing of the CSR, and presence of a company's apology. Specifically, the CSR in an unrelated domain was more effective than the one in a related domain when the CSR was made some time after the accident had occurred, whereas this difference was reversed when the CSR was made immediately after the accident had occurred. In addition, the positive effect of domain relatedness under the immediate CSR condition was more pronounced when a company's apology was explicitly made along with the CSR activity than when it was not. Finally, these results were likely to be mediated by participants' willingness to forgive the company about the negative accident.

KCI등재

9신규 상표에 대한 소비자의 초기반응에 관한 비교연구: 노출 형태별 주요 지표의 추세분석

저자 : 유창조 ( Changjo Yoo ) , 정성희 ( Sunghee Chung )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 193-220 (28 pages)

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본 연구는 신규상표가 소개될 경우 초기반응을 점검하기 위한 지표를 확인하기 위한 목적으로 정보처리유형 및 노출횟수에 따른 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도, 상표태도 및 상표신뢰도의 변화를 비교하였다. 또한 본 연구는 신규 상표의 이름으로 사용되는 단어를 의미적인 것과 비의미적인 것으로 구분하여 이들에 대한 소비자 반응을 비교하였다. 이러한 연구 과제를 검증하기 위해 본 연구는 상표에 대한 정보를 처리하는 유형(의미적 및 비의미적 정보처리)과 정보에 노출되는 횟수(0회, 2회, 4회 및 6회)를 개체간 변수로, 상표이름의 의미적인 수준을 개체내 변수로 조작한 실험설계를 진행했다. 또한, 본 연구는 실험대상 상표를 선정하고 통제 집단에 대한 정보를 확보하기 위해 두 가지의 사전조사를 진행하였다. 연구결과, 소비자가 반복노출에 따른 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도 및 상표태도의 변화는 상표 정보를 처리하는 방식에 따라 다르게 나타나고 있음이 확인되었다. 또한, 신규 상표의 이름으로 의미적 단어를 사용할 경우 비의미적 인 단어를 사용할 경우보다 적은 노출로도 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도 및 상표태도의 변화를 기대할 수 있음이 확인되었다. 마지막으로 본 연구는 연구의 주요결과를 요약하였고, 상표관리자에게 유용한 관리적 시사점들을 논의하였다. 또한, 본 연구는 연구의 한계점을 언급하면서 이를 극복하면서 신규상표에 대한 소비자의 초기반응과정에 대한 기존 지식을 확장해 줄 수 있는 후속연구방향을 제안하였다. 본 연구는 신규상표가 소개될 경우 초기반응을 점검하기 위한 지표를 확인하기 위한 목적으로 정보처리유형 및 노출횟수에 따른 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도, 상표태도 및 상표신뢰도의 변화를 비교하였다. 또한 본 연구는 신규 상표의 이름으로 사용되는 단어를 의미적인 것과 비의미적인 것으로 구분하여 이들에 대한 소비자 반응을 비교하였다. 이러한 연구 과제를 검증하기 위해 본 연구는 상표에 대한 정보를 처리하는 유형(의미적 및 비의미적 정보처리) 과 정보에 노출되는 횟수(0회, 2회, 4회 및 6회)를 개체간 변수로, 상표이름의 의미적인 수준을 개체내 변수로 조작한 실험설계를 진행했다. 또한, 본 연구는 실험대상 상표를 선정하고 통제 집단에 대한 정보를 확보하기 위해 두가지의 사전조사를 진행하였다. 연구결과, 소비자가 반복노출에 따른 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도 및 상표태도의 변화는 상표 정보를 처리하는 방식에 따라 다르게 나타나고 있음이 확인되었다. 또한, 신규 상표의 이름으로 의미적 단어를 사용할 경우 비의미적 인 단어를 사용할 경우보다 적은 노출로도 암묵적 기억성과, 상표친숙도 및 상표태도의 변화를 기대할 수 있음이확인되었다. 마지막으로 본 연구는 연구의 주요결과를 요약하였고, 상표관리자에게 유용한 관리적 시사점들을 논의하였다. 또한, 본 연구는 연구의 한계점을 언급하면서 이를 극복하면서 신규상표에 대한 소비자의 초기반응과정에 대한 기존 지식을 확장해 줄 수 있는 후속연구방향을 제안하였다.


This research analyzed the effects of information processing types and exposure frequencies on the initial responses to the newly introduced brands in the market. This research also examined these effects by categorizing new brand names into two types, high descriptive brand names vs. low descriptive brand names(by the levels of meaning in the brand name). The objective of this research is to develop indicators to measure the initial responses to the newly introduced brands in the market, For this purpose, we developed tentative hypotheses about changing patterns of the key responses such as implicit memory performance, brand familiarity, brand attitude and brand trust. To investigate the hypotheses, this study conducted two pretests and one main experiment. The purpose of the pretest 1 and 2 was to select the appropriate brand names to be used in the main study and to collect the base-line measures without exposures (control experimental group). The main study used an experimental method with 2(information processing: cognitive processing vs. non-cognitive information processing) X 3(two times exposures, four times exposures, six times exposures) between-subjects factors. We also considered two types of brand names (brand name types: highly descriptive brand name vs. lowly descriptive brand name) and employed those as within-subjects factors. More specifically, respondents were exposed to both low descriptive brand names and high descriptive brand names. We performed manipulation checks and confirmed that brand names were selected appropriately and manipulations of information processing type were successful.  The results of the main experiment can be summarized by descriptive levels of brand names. First, in case of non-cognitive processing condition about low descriptive brand names, we found that implicit memory performance has been improved by exposure levels, brand familiarity has increased significantly only at six times exposure condition, and brand attitude and brand credibility has not been changed regardless of exposure levels, Second, in case of cognitive processing condition about low descriptive brand names, we found that implicit memory performance and brand familiarity has been improved by exposure levels(change of brand familiarity was followed by the change of implicit memory performance), brand attitude and brand credibility has not been changed regardless of exposure levels. Third, when respondents were exposed to informations about high descriptive brand names, they showed better performances to implicit memory and brand familiarity than when they was exposed to informations about low descriptive brand names. Also, change of brand attitude was found at six times exposure condition. These results indicated that implicit memory performance, brand familiarity can be good indicators for the initial responses to the newly introduced brands. Based on these results, we summarized the findings and discussed limitations and future research directions along with interesting managerial implications about relationships among implicit memory performance, brand familiarity, and brand attitude.

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10실패복구에 대한 고객반응, 믿으니까 남고 미우니까 떠난다!: Double Deviation vs. Recovery Paradox 현상에 대한 비교분석

저자 : 라선아 ( Suna La )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 4호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 221-259 (39 pages)

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실패복구와 관련된 흥미로운 두 가지 현상은 리커버리 패러독스와 이중이탈 현상이다. 리커버리 패러독스는 '실패를 겪은 고객이 만족스런 복구를 경험함으로써 과거보다 오히려 만족도가 높아지고 결과적으로 충성도가 높아지는 현상 또는 전혀 불만족을 경험하지 않은 고객보다 더 충성적으로 변화하는 현상'이다. 이에 반해 이중이탈 현상은'이미 제품, 서비스의 실패로 인해 불만족한 고객에게 형편없는 복구수행으로 말미암아 또 다시 불만족을 겪게 함으로써 고객의 전반적인 평가를 악화시키는 현상'이다. 본 연구는 실패복구의 결과로 발생할 수 있는 상반된 두 현상을 고객-기업 관계의 회복과 추락이라는 관점에서 대조하고 비교분석하였다. 설문조사를 통해 수집된 실패 이전과복구 이후의 충성도 변화량 및 복구만족도 수준을 기준으로 두 집단을 분리, 추출한 후 불일치 패러다임과 관계마케팅 관점을 적용하여 두 집단 간의 공통점과 차이점을 분석하였다. 두 집단에 공통적으로 분배적, 상호작용적 리커버리불일치가 리커버리만족에 유의한 영향을 미치고, 리커버리만족을 거쳐 고객애정, 고객신뢰와 같은 관계의 질적변화가 도출되며, 관계의 질적 변화에 의해 충성도가 결정되는 경로구조를 적용했을 때, 이중이탈 집단에서 고객신뢰의 충성도에 대한 경로가 비유의적으로 분석된 것을 제외하고 다른 모든 경로구조는 유의하게 나타났다. 두 집단간 차이로서, 이중이탈 집단에서는 리커버리불일치가 고객애정에 대해 리커버리만족을 통한 간접적 영향 외에도 직접적인 spill-over 효과를 발휘한다는 점과, 고객애정의 추락만으로 직접 충성도가 추락되는 효과가 나타난다는 점을 발견하였다. 리커버리 패러독스 집단에서는 리커버리불일치의 고객애정에 대한 직접적인 spill-over 효과가 나타나지 않았으며 고객애정의 회복과 신뢰의 회복을 통해 충성도가 회복되는 과정을 거치는 데, 이 때 이중이탈 집단에 비해 고객애정의 충성도에 대한 직접 영향은 유의하게 더 작고, 고객신뢰의 충성도에 대한 영향은 유의하게 더 크다는 점이 발견되었다. 요컨대 충성도의 추락은 신뢰의 문제라기보다는 애정의 문제여서, 결국 고객은 믿음이 사라져서 기업을 떠난다기보다는 미움이 솟구쳐서 떠나는 것으로 이해된다. 반면, 실패복구 이후 고객이 기업에 남기로 결정하는 것은 우호적 감정에만 의존한 결정이 아니라 이성적 판단 결과도 함께 고려한 결정인 것이다. 그 외에도 두 집단 간 표본의 특성을 살펴보면, 리커버리 패러독스집단에서는 실패의 심각성이 더 낮고, 과거의 관계 강도가 더 약한 고객들이 상대적으로 높은 복구만족을 경험하면서 복구 이후의 충성도가 과거 수준 이상으로 증가되는 경향을 보이는 것으로 밝혀졌으며, 이중이탈 집단은 실패의 심각성이 더 크고 과거의 관계 강도가 더 높은 고객들이 상대적으로 낮은 복구만족을 갖게 되면서 이른바 '배반효과'를 나타내는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 본 연구는 실패복구 이후의 두 상반된 현상에 대한 본격적인 대조, 비교연구로서 의의를 가질 뿐만 아니라 학계와 실무계에 유용한 시사점을 제공한다.


Even though companies endeavor to deliver perfect products or services, failures are inevitable to some degree. When failures occur, the primary objective is to prevent customer from defecting and to return dissatisfied customers into normal. If failure recovery is performed successfully, then the firm can regain customer loyalty and, in better cases, it can enhance loyalty more than that of the past. When recovery is successful, customers become even more loyal to the company than before. However, when the recovery of failure fails again, customers feel angry, betrayed or frustrated, and finally negative recovery disconfirmation accompanied by aforementioned negative emotions leads to drop in loyalty or to customer defection. The better cases are called 'Recovery Paradox' and the worse cases are called 'Double Deviation.' The study attempts to contrast and compare the different characteristics between these two opposite phenomena by employing relationship marketing perspective and disconfirmation paradigm. Some of Dissatisfied customer from the initial failure of product or service may come to a happy ending but some meet a disastrous catastrophic ending via poor recovery. Recovery of failure is a moment of truth (MOT) both to company and to customer. The research framework is founded on the idea that recovery is a process that a dissatisfied customer passes through, from recovery disconfirmation, to perceived recovery performance determining the level of customer recovery satisfaction, and then rebuilding of relationship quality such as customer affection and trust, and finally rebuilding of customer loyalty. The study developed hypotheses in two ways. One is basic paths structure and the other is group difference. The structure of basic paths is identically adopted to both recovery paradox and double deviation groups. One of group differences is hypothesized as direct spill-over effect of recovery disconfirmation to customer affection for double deviation group. The rationale is based on ``negativity bias effect`` stemming from negative recovery disconfirmation accompanied by negative emotions. The other aspect of group difference is viewed on the path from customer affection to loyalty and from customer trust to loyalty. The direct path impact of customer affection on loyalty is hypothesized to be stronger for double deviation group than for recovery paradox group, but the direct impact of customer trust on loyalty is hypothesized to be stronger for recovery paradox group than double deviation group. The research model is shown in Empirical test was conducted by using 507 survey data. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the measurement model was supported with adequate fit indices: χ 2(194)=615.890(p=.00), χ 2/df=3.175, CFI=.968, NNFI= .962, SRMR=.035, RMSEA=.066. Groups should be divided in advance to running the Structural Equation Model(SEM). The scores of loyalty change between the two timelines, that is, the time before the failure occurred and the time after the recovery performed, was used for grouping. If the scores were '0' and more than '0', the respondents were categorized into Group_Recovery Paradox. 175 respondents belonged to Group_Recovery Paradox. If the scores were less than '0' and also the level of recovery satisfaction was lower than '5', indicating the mid-point of the 9-point Likert type scale, that was measured with BTWT method (better than expected/worse than expected). Finally, 233 respondents belonged to Group_Double Deviation. Mean(S.E.) Group_Double t-value Deviation Group_Recovery Paradox Failure Severity 6.921(.110) 5.811(.156) 5.986* Distributive Recovery Disconfirmation 3.157(.128) 4.479(.145) -6.846* Interactional Recovery Disconfirmation 3.411(.123) 4.792(.153) -7.056* Recovery Satisfaction 3.250(.126) 4.639(.176) -6.597* Prior Customer Affection 6.223(.123) 4.871(.149) 6.994* Prior Customer Trust 7.048(.091) 5.833(.129) 7.935* Prior Customer Loyalty 6.659(.101) 4.601(.149) 11.813* *p < .01  Group Characteristics 
shows the group characteristics. Distributive recovery disconfirmation, interactional recovery disconfirmation and recovery satisfaction of Group_Double Deviation were found to be relatively lower than those of Group_Recovery Paradox as expected. Contrarily, failure severity, prior customer affection, prior customer trust and prior customer loyalty of Group_Double Deviation were found to be relatively higher than those of Group_Recovery Paradox. Betrayal effect serves as the most plausible explanation for the differences in characteristics between two groups. Existing customers with relatively strong relational bond to the company seem to feel betrayed easily when 'reciprocity norm' is violated by the partner company. This could be seen as a 'potential dark side of strong relationship' between customer and company. To the contrary, customers who have relatively lighter bonding with the company in the past show more paradoxical tendency after an appropriate recovery was provided. The key causes of these contrasts are the severity of failure and recovery satisfaction.
shows the results of hypotheses testing. H7 was partly supported and H9 was rejected but all other hypotheses were accepted. The basic paths structure was mostly supported for both groups except for the path from customer trust to customer loyalty for Group_Double Basic Paths Hypothesis Unstandardized Coefficient (t-value) Result Group_Double Deviation Group_Recovery Paradox Distributive Recovery Disconfirmation → Recovery Satisfaction H1 .296*** (4.267) .233** (2.204) accepted Interactional Recovery Disconfirmation → Recovery Satisfaction H2 .392*** (5.057) .440*** (4.409) accepted Recovery Satisfaction → Customer Affection H3 .202*** (2.656) .422*** (5.199) accepted Recovery Satisfaction → Customer Trust H4 .223*** (5.691) .267*** (6.382) accepted Customer Affection → Customer Trust H5 .759*** (16.745) .758*** (14.264) accepted Customer Affection → Customer Loyalty H6 .711*** (7.154) .343** (2.043) accepted Customer Trust → Customer Loyalty H7 -.039 (.699) .471*** (2.818) partly accepted Groups Difference Group_Double Deviation Group_Recovery Paradox △χ2(1, p-value) Spill-over effect Distributive Disconfirmation → Customer Affection for Group_Double Deviation H8 .285(3.801)*** .050(.469) marginally 3.218(1, p=.073)* accepted Interactional Disconfirmation → Customer Affection for Group_Double Deviation H9 .213(2.480)*** -.008(-.076) rejected 2.639(1, p=.104) Comparison of path impact Customer Affection → Customer Loyalty : Group_Double Deviation > Group_Recovery Paradox H10 .711(7.154)*** .343(2.043)** marginally 3.390(1, p=.066)* accepted Customer Trust → Customer Loyalty : Group_Double Deviation < Group_Recovery Paradox H11 -.039(.699) .471(2.818)*** accepted 6.301(1, p=.012)** * p < .10, ** p < .05, *** p < .001
Results of Hypotheses Test Deviation. This means that the drop in customer trust has no significant impact to loyalty drop. Instead, drop in customer affection directly affect loyalty drop, which is comparatively more fatal to decrease in customer loyalty than that of Group_Recovery Paradox. The spill-over effect of recovery disconfirmation was significant only for the Group_Double Deviation. Customers who experience double deviation appear to follow emotional route more strongly in response to recovery than the other group. Their hierarchy of effects seems to be relatively more immediate and short. However, customers who rebuild the relationship via recovery satisfaction seem to follow more rational route to loyalty rebuilding. Their hierarchy of effects is longer and the nature of recovered customers appears to be more prudent and reserved so that they won``t be dominated by the affect or emotions related to the recovery itself. For the customers who were dissatisfied due to the initial failure to determine their future behavioral intention toward the company that committed the transgression, more time and more elaborative processing appear to be required for retention, however, less time and less elaborative processing appear to work for defection. Trust rebuilding makes people stay but affection drop may lead to customer defection in the recovery of failure. Further discussions and implications are detailed. Research limitations and future research ideas are also presented.

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