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소비자학연구 update

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수록정보
23권2호(2012) |수록논문 수 : 18
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23권2호(2012년) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1준거점 의존에 따른 묶음제품의 선호이행: 준거 제시와 할인가격제시방법을 통한 초점화 효과

저자 : 강윤희 ( Yoon Hee Kang ) , 김재휘 ( Jae Hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 1-22 (22 pages)

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본 연구는 소비자가 묶음제품에 대한 의사결정에 있어, 준거점 의존에 따라 효과적인 할인가격제시방법이 달라짐을 확인하고, 다른 평가 준거가 제시됨에 따라 선호가 이행됨을 밝히고자 한다. 구체적으로 묶음제품에서 주제품 혹은 부제품 중 어떠한 대상이 초점화를 통한 평가준거(판단의 기준점)가 되었는지에 따라 묶음제품 할인제시의 효과 가 다르게 나타날 것이라고 가정하고, 이를 검증하였다. 실험 1에서는 묶음제품의 구성요소 중, 특정 대상에 대한 평가준거의 제시가 할인가격제시조건에 따라 묶음제품 선호에 미치는 영향을 확인해보고자 하였으며, 주제품 준거를 제시한 조건에서는 부제품 할인이, 부제품을 준거를 제시한 조건에서는 주제품 할인이 효과적일 것이라 가정하 였다. 이를 검증하기 위하여, 135명의 참여자를 모집하여 묶음제품의 준거제시(주제품/부제품)와 할인가격제시방법 (주제품 할인/부제품 할인)의 2x2 요인설계를 통해 실험을 실시하였다. 연구 결과, 묶음제품내의 구성품 준거제시 와 할인가격제시방법의 상호작용효과가 나타났다. 구체적으로, 주제품 준거제시 조건에서는 부제품 할인조건이, 부 제품 준거제시 조건에서는 주제품 할인조건에서 더 높은 묶음제품 선호를 보였다. 실험 2에서는 실험 1의 결과를 확장하여, 직접적인 준거제시 뿐만 아니라, 다른 비교대안을 통한 준거제시에 의해서도 동일한 결과가 나타나는지 확인해보았다. 즉, 묶음제품 외의 다른 비교우위 주제품 대안을 준거로 제시하여 준거점에 의한 묶음제품 할인가격 제시방법의 타당성을 확인하고자 하였다. 이를 검증하기 위하여, 123명의 참여자를 대상으로 다른 비교우위 주제품의 준거제시 유무에 따라 묶음제품의 주제품 가치지각과 묶음제품의 구매의도, 그리고 비교우위 주제품의 준거제시 유/무와 할인가격제시방법(주제품 할인/부제품 할인)이 묶음제품 구매의도에 미치는 효과를 확인하였다. 연구 결과, 다른 비교우위 주제품 대안이 있는 조건이 없는 조건에 비하여 주제품의 가치지각과 묶음제품 구매의도가 낮았으며, 비교우위 주제품의 준거제시 유/무와 할인가격제시방법이 묶음제품 구매의도에 미치는 상호작용효과를 확인할 수 있었다. 구체적으로 다른 비교우위 주제품이 제시되는 조건에서는 주제품 할인이 묶음제품의 선호를 높였으며, 단독 으로 평가하는 조건에서는 부제품 할인조건에 대한 선호가 높게 나타났다.


This study aims to find out effective ways of presenting discounted price when it comes to bundle product. It assumes that preference of bundle product can be reversed depending on whether the reference point is on the focal product or tie-in product. In study1, the effect of reference point and discounted price presentation was examined. Specifically, it assumes when the focal product is presented as a reference, discounting tie-in product is more effect and when the tie-in product is presented as a reference, focal product discounting is more effective. In order to test this hypothesis, 135 participants were gathered and randomly distributed in the 2(focal product reference/tie-in product reference) X 2(focal product discounting/tie-in product discounting) experimental conditions. The result of study 1 shows significant interaction between the reference point and the presentation of discounted price. It reveals that tie-in product discount is more effective when the reference is on the focal product, while focal product discount is more effective when the reference is on the tie-in product. In study 2, reference point was nor on the focal product or tie-in product of same bundle product rather it was on other superior product which belongs to same category of focal product in presented bundle product. To examine this, 123 participants were gathered and randomly assigned in the 2(reference product given/not given) X 2(focal product/tie-in product discounting) experimental conditions. The results reveals lower perceived product value and purchase intention of the bundle product in the condition where the superior product was present. It also shows significant interaction effect of the reference point and the discounted price presentation. It indicates that focal product discount is preferred when other superior product is presented while tie-in product discount is preferred when there is no superior product given as a reference. In current study, it provides the evidence for preference reversal due to how the price of bundle product is presented and it examined this by allowing participants to actually engage in evaluation of bundle product. While past research has focused mainly on independent evaluation of a single bundle product evaluation, or its dynamics when the value of one of the tie-in/focal was fixed, this study further investigates how people evaluate, whether depending on the focal or tie-in product, can also be important aspect. This study provides implication in various related fields. First, it contributes to the field of bundle product studies that people facing the decision making get influenced by what is presented as a reference point and by this presented reference point, it reveals that they tend to avoid potential loss. It suggests that, the consideration of reference point and evaluation context in further studies regarding the effective way of presenting the price of bundle product. Indeed, this result is in line with many research that in the context of decision making, how people put their reference point is crucial factor. Lastly, this study also provides practical implication to marketers by suggesting effective way of presenting the bundling product in both condition where the reference is in the focal or tie-in product. Also, further study might also consider consumer`s own brand recognition and brand hierarchy with regards to price-presentation of bundle product as study 2 shows that people engage in different evaluation context depending on their own brand recognition and brand hierarchy.

KCI등재

2골드맘의 유아복 소비에 관한 질적 연구

저자 : 신연욱 ( Yeun Wook Shin ) , 노지연 ( Ji Yeon Noh ) , 김주경 ( Joo Kyung Kim ) , 고애란 ( Ae Ran Koh )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 23-44 (22 pages)

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본 연구에서는 최근 유아복 시장의 고급화, 명품화 열풍을 주도하고 있는 골드맘을 대상으로 그들의 유아복 소비 에 대한 내적 동기 및 관련된 요인들을 파악하고자 하였으며, 변화하고 있는 유아복 소비문화를 분석해보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 자녀와 유아복에 관여도가 높고 비교적 높은 구매수준을 보이고 있는 기혼 여성들을 대상으로 심층 면접을 실시하고, 이들의 구매 동기와 구매 행동 전반에 대한 주관적 경험담을 근거이론 방법을 통해 탐색적이고 귀납적으로 분석하였다. 분석은 개방코딩과 축코딩 및 선택적 코딩 과정을 통해 핵심 범주를 중심으로 하여 범주들을 하나의 과정으로 통합하는 방법으로 이루어졌다. 분석 결과, 중심 연구 현상을 이루는 패러다임 과정을 도출하였으며 이는 1) 중심현상으로 내 아이는 가장 소중하기에 의복뿐 아니라 교육, 음식, 놀이에 있어서까지 프리미엄 소비를 추구하는 VIB(Very Important Baby)현상 2) 이러한 현상을 발생하게 한 인과적 조건으로 가족 환경의 변화와 외모의 중요성 인식 3) 이러한 현상에 반응하기 위해 골드맘들이 선택한 전략으로 대리만족적 소비 4) 전략에 영향을 미치는 맥락적이고 중재적인 조건으로는 문화적 자본인 경험으로서의 소비와 사회적 자본의 중요성 인식 5) 대리만족적 소비로 표출된 전략들의 결과로는 특정 모임이나 행사 참여에 따른 과시적 소비와 다양한 정보와 유통 경로 탐색을 통한 합리적 소비가 나타났다. 실사용자와 소비자가 상이한 유아복 소비에 있어서, 골드맘의 고급 소비의 내적 동기들을 분석한 결과, 자녀를 위한 부분보다는 부모 자신을 위한 부분이 상당히 많이 투영되어 있음을 발견할 수 있었으며, 소비중독과 같은 행동으로 파생된 사례도 살펴 볼 수 있었다. 반면 합리적 소비에 대한 고민과 TPO에 맞는 옷차림을 위한 행동들은 자녀의 바람직한 소비행동을 이끌어낼 수 있는 초석이 될 것이란 점도 확인하였다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 하여, 향후 유 아복 구매행동과 관련된 새로운 연구방향을 제시하였다.


Consumers who competitively seek only the best for their children have recently emerged as the main customers in an infant clothing market. These consumers are leading the trend to gentrified and name-brand infant clothing. Various forms of media call this group of consumers ``gold-mom`` and the children of these parents ``gold-kids``. The media attribute the cause of the growing market for luxury infant goods to the changes in consumption culture produced by a low birth rate and the consumption pattern of a new generation of parents who were raised in an era of economic abundance. In addition, recent precedent studies have identified a new generation of housewives who pursue luxury clothing, distinguishing the buying behavior and consumption patterns of these consumers from other groups. In line with the gradual expansion of the market for luxury infant goods, this study conducted a focused, in-depth analysis on the motives and related factors regarding infant clothing consumption by gold-mom in order to analyze the transforming infant clothing consumption culture. To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted with married women who demonstrated high degree of involvement with their infants and their infants` clothing, in addition to high consumption levels. Exploratory and inductive analyses were achieved on the subjective personal experiences of these women regarding consuming behaviors and motives through grounded theory. Grounded theory is a qualitative and inductive research method that serves to form theories of abstract, analytical structures regarding process (or behavior/interaction) (Strauss and Corbin 1990). As the process begins without establishing a clear research problem, grounded theory is an appropriate research method to explain theoretically a special phenomenon that has yet achieved adequate research, namely the pursuit of luxury infant clothing. Analysis was accomplished by integrating all categories into a single process centered on the core categories through open coding, axial coding, and selective coding process. The deducted paradigm process is as follows. 1) The main core category surrounding the consuming behavior of infant clothing by goldmoms was the VIB (Very Important Baby) phenomenon. These consumers tried to provide the very best products for their children, products that are luxurious and safe, even though they might be more costly than other goods. Organic clothing products were popular for underwear, which is an item that comes in direct contact with the body. In the case of food, these consumers preferred eco-friendly, organic food products and showed a tendency to frequent organic shops or department stores that provide such products. Furthermore, gold-moms preferred hardwood toys to plastic toys and displayed the will to make the best choices for the future educational plans of their children regardless of expense. In general, they presented the tendency to spare no cost for their children. 2) Causal conditions refer to pre-conditions that generate a certain phenomenon. The changes in family environment of the research participants and awareness of the importance of external appearance were deeply rooted in the VIB phenomenon. This study interpreted a decreased birth rate, which was caused by late marriage and other factors, as well as little interest in caring for the appearance of the husband as the direct factors that could lead to free or excessive spending by gold-moms for their children. Furthermore, most research participants regarded external appearance as holding great social value and such a perception was consciously/unconsciously conveyed to their children. 3) Intervening conditions refer to the effect of causal conditions of a phenomenon, or the extensive, concrete situational factors that influence the character of experiences regarding a certain phenomenon. This study analyzed the consumption from the experience as cultural capital and awareness of the importance of social capital. Results indicated that little resistance for high-quality consumption was presented through past abundant experiences for clothing (inherited capital) and high-quality tastes for styles and sense which demonstrated by continuous shopping and information search, and conformity or distinction with other people (acquired capital). Such consuming behaviors and attitudes about clothing that were derived from intrinsic high-quality tastes were unconsciously and naturally realized in behaviors and attitudes about clothing for their children. Furthermore, high expectations and desires for social capital were displayed at the basis of the various behaviors of these research participants, which in turn led to the development of trust in expensive educational institutions. These participants believed that they would be able to accumulate social capital by educating their children in these exclusive educational institutions. 4) Action/interaction refers to the strategic and daily behaviors selected by individuals or groups as ``measures`` to confront a certain problem or phenomenon. Research participants selected luxurious mass-consumption of infant clothing as the strategy for the VIB phenomenon, which was expressed in the form of compensatory consumption. 5) In a paradigm process based on grounded theory, consequences refer to the responses presented by an individual or group regarding an action/interaction or related situations and are displayed as intentional or unintentional concrete behavior. Examples of concrete behavior presented through luxurious mass-consumption of infant clothing and expressed as compensatory consumption included conspicuous consumption for participation in a certain meeting or event and reasonable consumption through various information-gathering and search for the purchase routes. Most research participants presented a tendency to wear a special or more elegant outfit to a meeting or event. Moreover, the participants actively searched for information, used various purchase routes, and did not hesitate to use time and efforts to find more economical alternatives. This could be interpreted as a result that reflected the generational characteristics of the research participants. According to analysis on the motives for the consumption of luxury infant clothing by goldmoms, which is a product that presents separation between the actual user and consumer, we could ascertain that their was additional motives regarding infant clothing cunsuption against their own`s and a considerable part of the purchase was projected for the parents rather than for the children. Nevertheless, the consumers` efforts for achieving reasonable consumption and their behaviors for finding the correct outfit according to TPO were also analyzed to serve as the cornerstone for achieving advisable consumption behavior of children. Furthermore, a new research direction related with future infant clothing buying behavior was presented based on the acquired data.

KCI등재

3사회신뢰와 국가의 부 창출과정

저자 : 박상준 ( Sang June Park )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 45-58 (14 pages)

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사회신뢰는 거래비용을 줄이고 집단적 문제를 해결하는데 도움을 줌으로써 협력에 긍정적 영향을 미치고, 궁극적으로는 국가의 경제적 성과를 증대시키는 것으로 알려져 있다. 사회자본의 핵심요소의 하나인 사회신뢰는 사회구성 원 간의 상호작용에 있어서 이러한 긍정적 역할로 인하여 다양한 학문분야에서 관심을 받아 왔다. 열심히 일하는 것에 대한 사회적 가치인식이 높으면 사회구성원들이 열심히 일하게 되고 이것이 국가의 부를 증대시키게 된다. 그러나 열심히 일하는 것에 대한 긍정적 가치인식이 사회신뢰에 미치는 영향에 대해서는 선행연구에서 관심이 부족했다. 본 연구에서는 열심히 일하는 것에 대한 긍정적 인식이 사회신뢰에 미치는 영향을 미치는지 분석하고 있다. 이 러한 연구목적을 위해 145개국 대상으로 조사된 세계가치조사 자료를 이용하여 열심히 일하는 것과 관련된 가치인 식과 사회신뢰간의 관계를 분석하였다. 사회신뢰는 대다수의 사람들을 신뢰할 수 있다고 생각하는지에 관한 질문을 이용하였고, 열심히 일하는 것에 대한 가치인식은 2가지 문항으로 측정되었다. 첫 번째 가치인식 변수는 "모든 것이 운명에 의해 결정되는 것이 아니고 자신의 노력에 결정된다."라는 문항으로 측정되었고, 두 번째 가치인식 변수는 "운과 배경보다는 열심히 일함으로써 생활이 나아진다."라는 문항으로 측정되었다. 분석결과, 열심히 일하는 것과 관 련된 가치인식은 사회신뢰에 긍정적으로 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.


Other-regarding preferences (ORPs) such as trust, reciprocity and altruism are integral elements in economic transactions between companies, between consumers and retailers, between employers and employees, and in determining economic performance. Especially, social trust has been given a great deal of attention across an array of academic disciplines for its role in promoting cooperation among individuals and groups and for its positive influence on the economic performance of corporations. The crucial role of social trust for decision-making and economic performance has been recognized for a long time. Social trust stands for the social structure of a country and enables the investigation of the relationship between social and economic development. For example, the trust game proposed by Berg et al. (1995) demonstrated that individuals are able to achieve a higher but uncertain payoff by trusting that the anonymous counterpart is willing to cooperate and reciprocate the trust placed. Most studies (including World Values Survey) describe Korea as a low-trust society than Japan or China, even though a few studies find the evidences that social trust in South Korea is no less than those in other east asian countries. The argument created serious concerns for Korean scholars. The literature showed that income inequality and corruption best explains why social trust in Korea is lower than other east asian countries. The term "social trust", which is generalized interpersonal trust, is distinguished from trust embedded in personal relations, or "particularized thick trust". The most widely used question on social trust in surveys is "In general, do you agree that most people can be trusted or that you can`t be too careful in dealing with other people?". The general social survey has asked this same question since in the US, and the World Values Surveys, and European Values Study has used the same question. Social development in the form of higher trust is supposed to be strongly related to economic development. In other words, social trust increases the wealth of nation because social trust has positive influence on economic performance of corporations. The wealth of nation can be considered as aggregation of individuals` wealths in a nation. Thus, one can interpret that social trust increases the wealth of nation if it increases each individual`s wealth. It is possible to accumulate wealth when each individual works hard and when individuals cooperate with each other (or when transaction costs is low) because social trust increases cooperation and it reduces transaction cost (and it helps solve collective action problems). Previous studies have focused on the role of social trust in increasing cooperation and in reducing transaction cost. However, few study focuses on the relationship between social trust and individuals` perception on hard work. The salient value similarity (SVS) model explains that social value influence social trust. Thus, this paper investigates if individuals` perception on hard work influences on social trust because individuals` perception related to hard work represents a social value. Used is the World Values Survey (WVS) data for 55,090 respondents (The number of male is 26,692 and that of female was 28,398.) from 155 nations (including Korea, USA, Spain, Chile, Norway, and so on.). The average age of the respondents was 41.9. The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people`s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have. It is carried out by a worldwide network of social scientists who, since 1981, have conducted representative national surveys. The WVS is the only source of empirical data on attitudes covering a majority of the world`s population (nearly 90%). The social trust was measured by degree to which a respondent thinks that most people can be trusted. The perceptions on hard work were measured with 2 questions: The first one is that "Hard work does not generally bring success: it´s more a matter of luck and connections. - In the long run, hard work usually brings a better life.", and the second one is that "Everything is determined by fate. - People shape their fate themselves." To test the effects of the two perceptions on the social trust, this study used the GLM (Generalized Linear Model) in which the factors were gender, nation, income, marital status, and the covariates were the two perceptions and age. The results showed that the social trust is positively influenced by the perceptions (related to hard work). The respondents, who perceive that hard work usually brings a better life (or who perceive that hard work generally bring success: it is not a matter of luck and connections) and who perceive that people shape their fate themselves (or who perceive that everything is not determined by fate), showed higher social trust. This implies that the wealth of nation is affected directly and indirectly through social trust by individuals` perception on hard work. Additionally, this study found that the social trust is different by regional area, income class, and marital status. First, the countries in North Europe have higher social trust than those in the other regional areas (e.g., Asia, America, and Africa). Second, the high income classes have higher social trust than the lower income classes. Third, persons who are married have higher social trust than those who are divorced or separated.

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4기업 부정정보의 정정주체에 따른 소비자 태도회복 효과 연구: 부정정보의 신뢰수준과 기업지위의 조절효과를 중심으로

저자 : 김동태 ( Dong Tae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 59-83 (25 pages)

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본 연구에서는 기업 부정정보로 손상된 소비자 태도가 정정활동을 통해 원래 수준의 태도로 회복되는 과정에서 정정주체, 부정정보의 특성, 기업의 특성이 미치는 영향을 규명하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 먼저 모든 부정정보가 동 일한 강도로 소비자 태도에 영향을 미치지는 않을 것으로 예상하여 부정정보 정정주체와 정정효과(소비자 태도회복 효과)간의 관계에서 부정정보의 신뢰수준이 수행하는 조절적 역할을 규명하였다. 또한 부정정보로 인한 기업 위기 상황은 업종과 규모를 막론하고 어떤 기업에서든 발생할 수 있다는 점에서 기업의 특징에 따른 부정정보 영향과 태 도회복 효과의 차이를 살펴보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 기업특징으로 시장 내 기업의 지위를 활용하여 부정정보 정정 주체와 정정효과간의 관계에서 수행하는 조절적 역할을 규명하였다. 더불어 부정정보로 손상된 기업에 대한 소비자 태도가 정정활동을 통해 원래 수준의 태도로 회복될 수 있는지, 또 원래 수준 태도로의 회복에 있어 정정주체에 따 른 효과 차이가 있는지도 함께 살펴보았다. 가설 검증을 위한 실험은 2(정정 주체 : 중립자-해당 기업) × 2(부정정보 신뢰수준: 고-저) × 2(기업 지위: 고-저) 집단 간 설계로 구성하였다. 가설검증 결과 정정주체에 따른 태도회복 효과의 차이는 부정정보의 신뢰수준 이 낮은 경우보다 높은 경우에 더 크게 나타났으며(가설 1 지지), 부정정보 노출기업의 시장 내 지위가 높은 경우 보다 낮은 경우에 더 크게 나타남을 확인할 수 있었다(가설 2 지지). 추가분석에서는 잘못된 부정정보 때문에 나빠 진 소비자 태도는 정정활동을 통해 긍정적으로 개선되는 효과는 있었지만 부정정보 노출 전 수준의 소비자 태도로 완전히 회복되지는 않음을 확인하였다. 또한 부정정보 노출 전 소비자 태도로의 회복효과는 부정정보 해당 기업의 정정활동보다 중립적 주체의 정정활동이 있을 때 더 크게 나타남을 재확인하였다.


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a favorable consumer attitude toward a firm, having been deflated by exposure to negative publicity, can be restored through some corrective activity. Moreover, by focusing on negative information that publicizes falsehoods about a firm, this study examined the impact of an unexpected crisis in company reputation. In particular, this study considered the extent to which the agent responsible for conducting a corrective activity exerts influence on the degree of recovery by comparing the firm`s remedial response (e.g., assumption of responsibility, apology, denial, silence) and the third party`s corrective activity. The degree of deviation and the extent of recovery depend on the qualities of the negative information because not all negative information has the same impact on consumer attitude. Consequently, this study focused on the moderating role of consumer belief about the negative information on the process of attitude recovery. Finally, because negative information could jeopardize the reputation of any firm, regardless of size or industry category, the present study addressed the moderating role of a firm`s characteristics on the consumer attitude recovery process. Taken together, the following hypotheses reflect the purposes of this study: H1: As the degree of consumer belief increases, the recovery effect will vary based on the party who conducts the corrective activity. H2: As the firm`s market position increases, the recovery effect will be different depending on the party who conducts the corrective activity. A 2 (correction unit: neutral party-affected firm) x 2 (belief level: high-low) x 2 (firm`s market position: high-low) factorial between-subjects design was used to test the hypotheses. The firms were selected by pretest. The participants were selected using convenient sampling and included 165 undergraduate students, enrolled in large university in Korea, who had experienced the company and the product. Two-way ANOVA on the dependent variable (the discrepancy in consumer attitude) and the independent variables of belief level and corrective agent was used to test hypothesis 1. Interaction effects were found on both independent variables (F (1, 163) =15.904, p<.01), demonstrating that belief level moderates the impact of corrective agent. Based on these interaction effects, pair-wise comparisons were examined to discover how the results varied by belief level. The results indicate that under the high belief condition, the discrepancy in consumer attitude was higher (t (81) = 4.81, p<.01) when the corrective agent was the firm (△M=1.46) than when it was a neutral party (△M=0.38). Therefore, hypothesis 1-1 was fully supported. Under the low belief condition (H1-2), follow-up pair-wise comparisons revealed that consumer attitude was not significantly different (t(79)=-0.326, p>.1) when the corrective agent was the firm (△M=0.25) from when it was a neutral party (△M=0.30) (see Figure 1). Thus, H1-2 was also supported. To test hypothesis 2, two-way ANOVA on the dependent variable (the discrepancy in consumer attitude) and the independent variable of the firm`s market position and corrective agent was used. The results showed that there were significant interaction effects (F(1, 163)=4.282, p<.05) between the firm`s market position and the corrective agent, indicating that the former moderates the impact of the latter. Based on these interaction effects, pair-wise comparisons were examined to discover how the results varied by the firm`s market position. The results demonstrated that under the high market position condition, the discrepancy in consumer attitude was higher (t (81) = 4.81, p<.01) when the corrective agent was the firm (△M=0.87) than when it was a neutral party (△M=0.01). Thus, hypothesis 2-1 was supported. Under the low market position condition (H2-2), follow-up pair-wise comparisons revealed that consumer attitude was not significantly different (t (89)=1.13, p>.1), when the corrective agent was the firm (△M=0.83) from when it was a neutral party (△M=0.61). Therefore, hypothesis 2-2 was also supported (see Figure 2). pair-wise comparisons were examined. The results showed that consumer attitude toward the affected firm before exposure to negative information (M=5.18) differed from consumer attitude after the corrective activity (M=4.60) (t (163) =7.22, p<.01). Follow- up pair-wise comparisons revealed that although the affected firm conducted the correction activity, consumer attitude clearly did not return to its original level. Independent t-tests for discrepancy in consumer attitude before exposure to negative information and after the correction activity were examined. As expected, the results showed that the gap in consumer attitude was greater when the corrective activity was conducted by the firm (△M=0.85) than when it was conducted by a neutral party (△M=0.34). Therefore, the recovery effect should be greater when the corrective activity is conducted by a neutral party. This study contributes to the field because it investigated the recovery effect by analyzing the discrepancy in consumer attitude before exposure to negative information and after the correction activity instead of analyzing the discrepancy before and after the correction activity alone. Previous studies have not examined the under-correction effect of correction activity because they did not focus on the recovery effect. Moreover, this study not only demonstrates how the corrective agent differentiates correction effects, a factor rarely addressed by previous studies, but also provides implications for future research and practice. The findings of this study confirm that belief level of the consumer and market position of the affected firm do play roles in determining the correction effect. Especially noteworthy is that this study found that belief level of the consumer moderates the consumer attitude recovery process. However, this finding partially conflicts with previous research, which has demonstrated the of the negative effects that arise from negative information (i.e., impression perseverance model or conversational norm theory). This study also provides implications for professionals by confirming the under-correction effect; accordingly, firms need to invest communication resources into activities that prevent exposure to negative information. Furthermore, firms need to utilize neutral parties as corrective agents when a crisis arises, depending on their market position and the level of consumer belief.

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5재무교육 및 재무상담에 대한 소비자요구와 선호분석

저자 : 성영애 ( Young Ae Sung )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 85-105 (21 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 재무교육과 재무상담에 대한 요구도와 선호를 살펴보고 이에 영향을 미치는 요인을 살펴보는 것이다. 한국투자자교육재단에서 수집한 2008년도 펀드투자자조사를 이용하였는데, 이 조사에서는 11개의 주제영 역에 대한 재무교육 요구도와 재무상담 요구도를 4점 리커트 척도로 조사하였다. 2,530명을 대상으로 평균비교와 paired t-test, 분포도, 상관관계분석, 다중회귀분석 및 다항로짓 분석을 실시하였다. 주요결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 재무교육과 재무상담에 대한 평균 요구도는 4점 만점에 각각 3.32점, 3.18점으로 모두 높은 편이었고, 전체적으로나 각 주제영역별로나 재무교육에 대한 요구도가 재무상담에 대한 요구도보다 유의미하게 더 높은 편이었다. 둘째, 주제별 요구순위를 살펴보면 재무교육의 주제와 재무상담의 주제의 우선순위가 거의 동일하게 나타나고 있다. 노후설계방법에 대한 요구가 가장 높았고, 절세방법, 주택마련이나 부동산투자에 대 한 내용이 그 다음으로 요구가 높았다. 셋째, 재무교육에 대한 요구도에 영향을 미치는 요인과 재무상담에 대한 요 구도에 영향을 미치는 요인은 거의 유사하였다. 소비자의 연령, 교육수준, 혼인상태, 가구원수, 주거형태, 금융자산, 가계부채와 재무상담경험 등 여러 가지 요인에 따라 달라지는 경향이 있었다. 넷째, 전체적으로는 재무교육을 선호 하는 집단이 더 많았으나 각 세부영역별로 보면 교육과 상담에 대한 선호가 동일한 집단이 더 많았다. 소비자에 따 라 재무교육과 상담에 대한 선호가 나타나고 있는데, 재무교육을 선호하는 집단에 속할 가능성에 영향을 미치는 변 수는 연령, 금융자산 및 재무상담경험인 것으로 나타났고, 재무상담을 선호하는 집단에 속할 가능성에 영향을 미치 는 변수는 성별, 직업, 가구원수로서 영향을 미치는 변인이 상이하였다.


Financial education and financial counseling are useful tools for improvement of financial capability and financial well-being. However, financial education and counseling have not only similarities but also differences in their goals, the relationships between the educators or counselors and clients, and their effects, Because of the differences, education may be more appropriate for some topics or some consumers while counseling may be better way for the other topics or consumers. The purpose of this study was to compare the needs for financial education and financial counseling in their subject areas. The results can give useful information on what subjects are needed by education and counseling. The results will also give the answer the question, "which is the better way between education and counseling for each subject and consumers with different characteristics?" The data of the study came from the 2008 Fund Investor Survey of Korea Investors Protection Foundation. Total number of the sample was 2,530 who lived in Seoul and 6 metropolitan areas of Korea. The sample was consisted of relatively large proportions of young, unmarried and high income consumers compared the census result. The need level was measured by 4 score Likert scale for 11 financial subject areas ; saving, fund investment, stock and bond investment, credit management, tax management, risk management, retirement planning, money preparation for business, real estate investment, income and expense management, and estate planning. For the statistical analysis, paired t-test, correlation, multiple regression analysis and multinomial logistic analysis were utilized using SPSS. The main results are as follows: The need levels for both education and counseling are high. The ranks of the topic needs for financial education and financial counseling are very similar. The education and counseling needs for retirement planning, tax management and real estate investment are the highest. But the need level for education is greater than that of counseling. For all topics, the need for education is greater than the need for counseling. This result implies that education can be more effective. The correlations between the needs for education and counseling are very high, which means that counseling need is also high if education need is high. Even though education need is generally greater than counseling need, counseling also may be more effective for some subject areas and for some clients. Credit management is an example topic for which counseling need is greater than other topics. The factors affecting the need for financial education are very similar with those affecting the need for financial counseling. Age, educational level, marital status, number of household members, home ownership, financial assets, debt and financial counseling experience are significant factors for both needs. The need is greater for the younger, educated and married persons with larger sized family, greater financial assets and debt, and financial counseling experience. The percentage of the consumer group that prefers financial education to counseling is the biggest in general whereas the percentage of the group with no preference is the highest for each topic. The factors influencing the preferences for education and counseling are different. The probability to belong to the consumer group who prefer for education is increased if the age of the consumers are over 50s, their financial assets are greater and they have no counseling experience. On the other hands, the probability to belong to the consumer group who prefer for counseling is higher for the consumer who is female, wage earner and living in a small family. This result shows that different consumer characteristics can be considered to plan the financial education and counseling.

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6소비자 구매행동은 혈액형과 연관이 있는가?

저자 : 석관호 ( Kwan Ho Suk ) , 구지은 ( Ji Eun Koo )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 107-134 (28 pages)

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소비자의 혈액형에 따라 시장을 세분화하거나 제품을 추천하는 혈액형 마케팅이 빈번히 사용되고 있다. 본 연구 는 이와 같은 혈액형 마케팅이 과학적인 사실에 바탕을 두고 있는 지를 검증하고자 하며, 이를 위해 소비자 구매결정 과정에 영향을 미치는 개인의 소비행동 특성변수에 초점을 맞추어 해당 변수가 혈액형과 관련이 있는 지를 연구 하고자 한다. 소비자 행동 연구에 따르면 소비자 구매결정은 총 5개의 단계로 구성되는데, 욕구의 인지. 정보탐색, 대안의 평 가, 구매, 구매 후 행동으로 이루어진다. 소비자 개인의 특성변수는 (1) 소비자 구매결정 각 단계와 관련성이 있는 지, (2) 혈액형에 대한 특성을 반영할 수 있는 지를 기준으로 선택되었다. 그 결과 욕구 인지 단계에서는 소비자의 독특성 욕구(need for uniqueness), 정보 탐색 단계에서는 인지 욕구(need for cognition), 대안 평가 단계에서 는 위험추구(risk taking) 성향, 구매 단계에서는 충동구매(impulse purchase) 성향, 구매 후 행동 단계에서는 불평행동(complaining behavior)이 개인 특성변수로 선정되었다. 사전조사에서는 혈액형별 성격과 혈액형별 소비행동의 특징에 대한 지식, 그에 대한 믿음을 측정하였다. 그 결과, 혈액형과 성격 간의 관계에 대해서는 대부분의 응답자들이 알고 있으며, 절반 이상의 응답자가 실제로 두 변수간의 관련성을 믿고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 혈액형과 소비행동 간의 관계에 대한 지식이나 믿음은 상대적으로 약하지만 27%의 응답자가 혈액형과 소비행동 특성간의 관련성에 대해 보통이상으로 인지하고, 37%의 응답자가 혈액형과 소비행동 특성의 관련성에 대해 보통 이상의 믿음을 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 사전조사에서는 또한 독특성 욕 구, 인지욕구, 위험추구 성향, 충동구매 성향, 불평행동과 같은 소비행동이 어떤 혈액형에서 가장 많이 나타날 지에 대한 믿음(lay belief)을 측정하였다. 그 결과 응답자들은 각각의 혈액형이 특정 소비행동과 밀접히 연관되어 있음 을 강하게 믿고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 구체적으로는 AB형은 독특성 욕구가, A형은 인지욕구가, B형의 경우 위험 추구 성향, 충동구매 성향, 불평행동이 두드러질 것이라 믿고 있었다. 첫 번째 실증 연구에서는 대학생들을 대상으로 앞서 선정한 개인의 다섯 가지 소비행동 특성변수를 측정하였다. 분석 결과, 혈액형은 소비행동 특성변수와 관계가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯 개의 소비자 개인 특성변수 모두 혈액형에 따른 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 이는 혈액형과 소비행동 간에 유의미한 관계가 없음을 나타내는 결과라 볼 수 있다. 두 번째 실증 연구에서는 독특성 욕구, 인지 욕구, 위험 추구 성향, 충동구매 성향을 자기 보고(self-report)가 아닌 다양한 선택 상황에서의 소비자 의사결정을 통해 측정하였다. 그 결과, 첫 번째 연구와 마찬가지로 혈액형에 따른 차이를 보이지 않았다. 본 연구의 결과들은 일반적인 믿음과는 달리 혈액형과 소비행동 간에는 유의한 관계가 없음을 보여주었다.


Market segmentation and product differentiation based on consumers` blood type is frequently practiced in Korea. For example, a fusion bar recommends different side dish menus to consumers with different blood type. This research investigates whether the blood type marketing is grounded by scientific evidence showing consumers behavior is related to blood type. This research examines associations between blood type and five dimensions of consumer behavior characeristics that are related to consumer buying decision process. Research on consumer behavior has suggested that consumer decision making consists of five sequential decision stages: Need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase behavior. We selected five consumer behavior characteristic variables that are related to each stage of the decision making process and are supposedly related to lay beliefs about the characteristics of blood type. Specifically, we selected need for uniqueness (need recognition), need for cognition (information search), risk taking (evaluation of alternatives), impulse buying (purchase), and complaining behavior (postpurchase behavior) that represent the buying decision process. This research examined whether the five consumer behavior measures are related to blood type. A pretest explored university stduents` knowledge and beliefs about the relationship between blood type and personality and the relationship between blood type and consumer behavior. Respondents were well aware of the personality characteristics of each blood type and more than half of the respondents believed that personality and blood type are related. Beliefs and knowledge about the relationship between blood type and consumer behavior were weaker compared with those of the relationship between blood type and personality. We also measured lay beliefs about which blood type consumer is most likely to be related to need for uniqueness, need for cognition, risk taking, impulse buying, and complaining behavior. The results showed that the respondents have strong lay beliefs about the association between blood type and specific consumer behaviors. Respondents believed that need for uniqueness is most strongly related to blood type AB and be weakly related to blood type A or O. Need for cognition is strongly related to blood type A, but weakly related to other types. Consumers with blood type B are believed to be most likely to seek risk, buy with impulse, and complain after experiencing dissatisfaction. In sum, these findings suggest that people have stereotypes of blood type with respect to certain dimensions of consumer behavior. Study 1 examined the relationship between respondents` blood types and the five dimensions consumer behavior characteristics. In the study, respondents self reported their consumer behavior traits such as need for uniqueness, need for cognition, risk taking, impulse buying, and complaining behavior. We also manipulated the order in which ABO blood type is measured. In the ABO first condition, blood type was measured before measuring the five consumer behavior traits. In the ABO last condition, blood type was measured after the five consumer behavior measures. It was expected that, as gender stereotypes, measuring blood types first should activate blood type stereotypes, resulting in greater differences across blood types. The results of study 1 showed that blood type is not related to consumer behavior. For all the five consumer behavior measures, we found no significant differences across the consumers with different blood types. In addition, activation of blood type stereotype did not change the result. The findings of this study indicate that there is no significant relationship between blood type and individual difference characericists of consumption behavior. One shortcoming of Study 1 is that consumer behavior characteristics were measured by self-reports, which may not reflect actual consumer decisions. Therefore, we conducted Study 2 Study 2 further examined whether blood type is related to various consumer decisions that are related to need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase. Specifically we tested the relationship between consumers` blood type and purchase of unique options (i.e., need for uniqueness), decision making time (i.e., need for cognition), choice of risky option (i.e., risk taking), and impulse buying intention (impulse buying). Specifically we tested whether respondents` blood types were reslated to various consumer decision makings such as the extent to choose unique versus ordinary choice options, the amount of time taken to search for product information before making choice decisions, the likelihood of choosing risky over safe options, and their willingness to buy without planning in a given purchase situation. The results showed that blood type was not significantly related to these consumer decision makings In sum, the results of the current research demonstrate that consumers` blood types are not strongly related to consumer behavior, contrary to some beliefs that blood types are related to certain types of consumer behavior. However, future research using different methods (e.g., analyzing shopping data of different blood types) should present more compelling evidence regarding the association between blood type and consumer behavior. Another direction for future research is to test the influence of blood type marketing on consumer perception, attitude, and purchase behavior.

KCI등재

7멀티채널 환경에서 소비자는 어떻게 정보를 탐색하는가?: 선호하는 정보원천에 따른 소비자 유형화와 관련 요인

저자 : 최아영 ( A Young Choi ) , 나종연 ( Jong Youn Rha )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 135-164 (30 pages)

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소비자들이 정보를 얻을 수 있는 정보채널이 다양해짐에 따라, 소비자의 정보탐색행동 또한 다양한 양상을 보이 고 있다. 이러한 맥락에서 온라인 커뮤니티와 블로그, SNS 등 새로운 형태의 온라인 정보채널과 오프라인 매장 등 기존의 정보채널을 소비자들이 어떻게 조합하여 사용하는지에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 또한 기존의 연구들에서 사용 되던 정보원천의 분류기준이 현 상황에 적합한지 여부도 재고되어야 한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 소비자들의 전반적 인 정보탐색 현황을 살펴보고, 소비자들의 정보탐색행동을 기준으로 소비자유형화를 실시하였다. 그리고 각 소비자 유형에 따라 정보탐색행동을 차별화하도록 하는 요인들을 파악하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 온라인 소비자들은 온라인과 오프라인 정보채널을 넘나들며 다양 한 정보를 탐색하고 있었다. 소비자들은 온라인 정보원천을 보편적으로 활용하고 있었으며, 그 중 구매가 이뤄지는 온라인쇼핑몰에 게시된 정보의 이용비율이 가장 높았다. 둘째, 소비자들의 정보탐색행동에 기반하여 소비자유형화를 실시한 결과, 소비자들은 ``다양한 정보 선호자``, ``객관적 정보 선호자``, ``대인적 정보 선호자``, ``집약적 정보 선호자``, ``오프라인 정보 선호자`` 등 총 다섯 유형으로 분류되었다. 각각의 소비자 집단은 정보탐색량과 활용한 정보원천의 종 류와 분포에서 차이를 보였는데, 이는 곧 소비자의 정보탐색행동은 ``얼마나 많은 정보원천을 활용하여 정보를 획득 하는가?``와 ``어떠한 정보원을 활용하였는가?`` 등 두 층위에서 고려되어야 함을 의미하는 결과였다. 마지막으로 소비 자의 정보탐색행동에 영향을 미치는 요인에 따라 정보탐색량과 주로 활용하는 정보원천이 달라졌다. 우선 소비자의 전체적인 정보탐색량은 소비자의 정보탐색성향과 쇼핑무관심성, 쾌락지향성 등에 의해 결정되었으며, 어떤 정보원천을 위주로 탐색하는지는 성별과 연령 등 사회인구학적인 변수들과 어떤 상품을 구매하였는지가 주요한 요인들로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과를 토대로 소비자와 소비자의 정보탐색행동에 대한 이해의 폭을 넓힐 수 있으며, 소비자정보 와 관련한 커뮤니케이션 방식에 대한 시사점을 도출할 수 있었다.


Recently, businesses face new challenges of internet which has been discussed to have potential as a medium for extending the range of consumers` information sources. Via the newly introduced media such as blogs, SNS businesses are trying to interact market and its consumer. For example food company ``Pulmuone`` runs a blog. It is not only for a publicizing and promoting its brand or for e-commerce, but also for interact with consumers. Specifically it focuses consumergenerated information, how its products are used in the context of consumption. Official company blogs when first introduced, were only used as a marketer-driven consumer information source, but now we can easily find consumer-generated information. Moreover even individual consumer blogs posted recommendations and product reviews in a form ``a consumer`s view`` sometimes that are the result of featured or sponsored. For instance, one of ``power bloggers`` imposed a fine for not clarifying corporate sponsorship in 2011. As such the distinctive line that separated marketer-driven information source from consumer- generated information source is now blurred. These kind of mixed status makes consumer confused. Even though the typology of information sources are becoming more complex, most of the studies did not consider consumers` information search behavior in various information channel environment. Moreover previous studies applied the outdated framework for categorizing information sources: market-driven information sources, neutral information sources, consumer generated information sources. In early 2000`s, there was a discussion about the classification of consumer information source within internet era, but the discussion was limited to the internet as a platform, and thus focus was placed on offline or online. The framework for analyzing consumer information sources currently used does not guarantee adequacy in the present market environment, since it lacks considerations for unique traits and benefits of various information channels. Thus, it is necessary to explore consumers` information search behavior with an advanced approach. It is important to understand how individuals perceive the range of information channels available to them and how those perceptions affect their use of different types of sources. These attempts enable us to draw the new standards for consumers` information sources. This study investigates consumers` use of new and traditional information sources, and identify new typology of consumers based on their choice of information channels. The major findings of this study are as follows. First, our results show that the distinction of online consumers and offline consumers may no longer be useful, since most consumers were found to use both channels. Respondents tended to use online information sources more than offline sources, and online shoppingmall was found to be the most preferred information channel. Second, consumers were a classified into 5 clusters; ``heavy searchers``, ``objective information searchers``, ``interpersonal information searchers``, ``infomediary searchers``, ``offline information searchers``. Each consumer segments were significantly different from the amount of information search and sources or patterns of information search. ``Heavy searchers`` are trying to find extensive information over diverse information sources except for offline channel based information. ``Objective information searchers`` are also heavy information users like ``heavy searchers``, but they favor price comparison site and articles. ``Interpersonal information searchers`` highly rely on interpersonal sources such as online communities, families and friends. ``infomediary searchers`` contain the largest number of individuals who do not utilize information except for detailed information that are posted by online shopping mall. ``Offline information searchers`` are consisted with whom trust offline channel so that they can confirm the products. Third, multinomial-logit analysis was conducted to explore the impact of the consumers` demographic variables, purchased goods, and consumers` shopping propensity, on consumers use of information channels. Total amount of information search was impacted by consumers` information seeking propensity, shopping indifference, and their hedonic value. Which information source were selected and used for the consumers` decision making, were largely depended on consumers` gender, age and the purchased goods. The results of this study will provide significant insights for the effective communication strategies for the consumer information providers such as marketers and the governors.

KCI등재

8Generative Tools를 활용한 소비자니즈의 추출과 분석

저자 : 황혜선 ( Hye Sun Hwang ) , 김기옥 ( Kee Ok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 165-205 (41 pages)

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본 연구에서는 소비자의 잠재된 니즈에 접근할 수 있는 Generative Tools를 활용하여 소비자니즈를 추출하고 이를 분석할 수 있는 모형을 제안하고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 먼저 이론적 고찰을 통해 소비자니즈가 발생하는 배 경과 구체적으로 형성되는 과정에 근거한 소비자니즈의 분석을 위한 연구모형을 수립하였다. 연구모형은 소비자니즈가 형성되기까지의 과정에 영향을 미치는 소비자의 개인적·환경적 요인으로 구분하여 구성하였다. 소비자니즈의 형성과정에 영향을 미치는 개인적 요인은 소비자가 평가하는 자신의 자원(대처자원)이고, 환경적 요인은 자신을 둘 러싼 심리적 환경(경험맥락)에 대한 평가이다. 대처자원과 경험맥락의 평가는 각각 주관적 측면의 평가와 객관적 측면의 평가로 구분되었다. 다음으로 소비자니즈의 추출 및 분석을 위해 두 단계로 구분된 조사 1과 조사 2를 진행 하였다. 조사 1에서는 Generative Tools를 활용하여 소비자의 마음 속 깊은 곳에 존재하는 니즈까지 추출하기 위 한 조사 및 분석을 수행하였다. 구체적인 조사 1의 조사 주제는 서로 다른 특징을 가진 세 가지 소비자 생활영역으 로 개인적 생활영역, 가족생활영역, 가족 및 타인과의 여가생활영역에서 한 가지씩의 주제를 선정하였다. 각각 선정 된 주제는 학습, 주방, 촬영기기 관련 활동이다. 세 주제영역에서 추출된 니즈의 공통성을 분석한 결과 두 개의 축 으로 구성된 소비자니즈의 유형이 도출되었다. 두 축은 자아관련-타인관련의 축과 기능관련-감성관련의 축이다. 조 사 2에서는 조사 1에서 조사된 네 가지 유형의 니즈가 형성되기까지의 과정에 영향을 미치는 소비자의 개인적·환경 적 요인을 구조방정식모형으로 분석하였다. 소비자니즈의 분석은 각 생활영역에 대해 대처자원과 경험맥락에 대한 주관적·객관적 평가의 요소로 구성되는 연구모형을 통해 세 가지 주제영역에서 각각 도출된 네 가지 유형의 소비자 니즈에 영향을 미치는 요인이 무엇인지 규명하였다.


This study aimed to construct a framework of consumer needs for systematical research and analysis to develop products based on the needs. Producing what consumers really want is the primary way to enhance consumer welfare not only directly but also indirectly. For the former instance, consumers can choose the products which meet their needs, thereby maximizing the satisfaction. Not only this but also product developers as companies may concentrate on producing products according to the needs, which concludes effective and efficient distribution of resources. Finally, consumer welfare would be raised with need-oriented production. For this perspective, consumer needs should be treated as the most crucial issue in the development process of products and analyzed thoroughly. Nowadays, most of companies are trying to apply consumers` needs to their products by researching them with surveys, interviews, observations, or other techniques. The methods generally used in consumer research, however, cannot approach to tacit and latent needs which exist deep inside the consumers` mind. Consumer needs which cannot be articulated by words may not be expressed with verbal techniques such as surveys or types of interviews. Even the techniques researching consumers by observing what they do have another limitation catching only behavioral expressions. Furthermore, many companies design consumer research from their perspectives as which attempting to research consumer needs within their product categories or business fields. This tendency precludes consumers from expressing their needs freely, but locking in the given boundaries. On the other hand, product developers may not be familiar with the circumstance of consumers, which makes them hard to understand why consumers want something. The products developed without sufficient understanding of consumers` life cannot resonate with consumers. This study aimed to suggest a model to analyze consumer needs by applying a technique, Generative Tools, which approaches even to latent needs. A model suggested on this study is to be used as a framework of analysis of consumer needs. For this purpose, a two-step research was conducted: Research 1 by Generative Tools and Research 2 by a structural equation model. In Research 1, consumer needs were extracted from three themes(learning, kitchen, and imaging device). The consumer needs were researched by Generative Tools to apply to the theoretical consumer needs analysis model. The needs research themes were selected according to the consumer life domains as origins of consumer needs. Three themes were selected: learning activities for personal life domain, kitchen activities for family life domain, and activities using image capturing devices for leisure life domain with family and others. The consumer needs structured into a common 2-axis typology of consumer needs: self-oriented/others-oriented axis and functional/emotional axis. Based on the 2-axis typology, consumer needs were classified into four consumer needs types. These four types of consumer needs were applied to the structural equation model of Research 2 to verify the consumer needs analysis model. From Research 1, four types of consumer needs combined by the typology were analyzed by a structural equation model in Research 2. The model was designed to indentify different needs development and elaboration by a three-stage appraisal model, which is "consumer needs analysis model." The model was based on theoretical studies including Lewin`s field theory and cognitive appraisal and interaction studies. The consumer needs analysis model was constructed theoretically with the dualistic structure of consumer needs origin and elaboration. The consumer needs origin consists of interaction between person and psychological environment. A person`s characteristics are affected by surroundings which are related to his/her life called psychological environment. Reversely, a person can also change the surroundings. The interaction between a person and his/her psychological environment is the origin of consumer needs, which are elaborated by an appraisal process of the both: a person and the environment. The appraisal of a person is composed of evaluation of the personal coping resource, and the environment is appraised by evaluating the experience context surrounding consumers as a psychological environment. The experience context is appraised by goal relevance, goal congruence, and possibility of development with both objective and subjective criterion. The coping resource is composed of objective and subjective resources which intervene in the appraisal of the experience context, which affects the process of consumer needs elaboration indirectly. As a result, the consumer needs analysis model differentiates the characteristics of the life domains and the distinguishing types of the consumer needs. Consumer needs of learning are generally affected by subjective appraisal about one`s possibility of development, whereas objective appraisal about the possibility of development has negative effect to self-oriented consumer needs. All the types of consumer needs about kitchen are positively affected by objective goal relevance. It means the housewives have more needs about better kitchen when they regard their kitchen as a place they are required to work for a job. Also, the more they evaluate their subjective possibility of development the more self-oriented functional needs are extracted. It is a difference between learning and kitchen themes that housewives have their needs based on objective evaluations because kitchen is a place to share with other family members and to work for housewives while learning is one of the personal life domain. From the theme of imaging device, four types of consumer needs are positively affected by objective goal relevance, whereas negatively affected by subjective goal relevance. It means that the imaging device users care about other people because the activity using an imaging device is observable. The results from the three themes show that the model elucidates the process of consumer needs elaboration based on the theories, and predicts the different types of the consumer needs by identifying what variables have influence. This result proposes a guideline to research and analyze consumer needs by a more consumer-centered research method in depth.

KCI등재

9아동의 브랜드확장 광고 평가

저자 : 허종호 ( Jong Ho Huh ) , 김경호 ( Kyung Ho Kim ) , 이석규 ( Suke Kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 207-223 (17 pages)

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본 연구에서는 인지 및 유추적 이해능력의 대리 변수로서 연령이라는 새로운 변수를 고려하여 기존의 연구에서는 다루어지지 않았던 집단인 아동을 대상으로 모 브랜드와 확장제품 간의 유사성 수준별 효과적인 브랜드확장의 광고 유형에 대해 살펴보았다. 구체적으로, 아동을 대상으로 2(브랜드확장의 광고유형: 관련성 광고 vs. 정교화 광고) X 2(모 브랜드와 확장제품 간의 유사성 수준: 유사확장 vs. 비유사확장) 집단간 실험설계를 적용하여 모 브랜드와 확장 제품 간의 유사성 수준별로 브랜드확장의 광고유형 효과가 어떻게 달라지는지 알아보았다. 분석결과, 기존의 성인을 대상으로 한 연구결과와는 달리 아동의 경우에는 효과적인 브랜드확장의 광고유형이 모 브랜드와 확장제품 간의 유사성 수준에 따라 달라지는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 모 브랜드와 확장제품 간의 유사성 수준 이 높은 경우에는 정교화 광고보다 관련성 광고에서 확장제품에 대한 평가가 더 호의적이었던 반면에, 두 제품 간 의 유사성 수준이 낮은 경우에는 정교화 광고보다 관련성 광고에서 확장제품에 대한 평가가 더 비호의적인 것으로 나타났다. 성인과 달리 아동을 대상으로 브랜드확장 광고를 할 경우에는 모브랜드와 확장제품 간의 유사성 수준을 고려하여 광고유형을 선택적으로 사용해야 함을 본 연구결과는 시사하고 있다.


For successful brand extension, company can use advertising strategy. Advertising in brand extension can be distinguish relational and elaborational advertising. Relational advertising usually has the goal which strengthen the relationship or associations between parent brand and extended product. On the other hand, elaborational advertising has the goal which cut off the associations between parent brand and extended product through emphasizing the properties of extended product. According to prior research, the effectiveness of relational and elaborational advertising can be moderated by many conditions, such as the level of familarity toward parent brand, regulatory focus and so on. In this research stream, we suggest that age of consumer can moderate the effectiveness of advertising strategy in brand extension. Prior researches suggest that adults and children have different abilities in cognitive process. Children have low-level cognitive abilities, and they develop more sophisticated decision-making abilities as they matured. Because of this difference, we can anticipate that children`s evaluation on extended product should be different from adults. We examine which advertising strategy in brand extension is more effective for children when the similarity level between the parent brand and the extended product is high or not. Specifically, we predict that children may evaluate favorably extended product in relational advertising condition than elaborational one when the similarity between parent brand and extended product is high. On the other hand, children should evaluate more positively extended product in elaborational advertising condition than relational one when the similarity is low. To reveal the findings, the present study conducts an experiment with children samples, and subjects are randomly assigned to the cells of 2(advertising type: elaborational ad vs. relational ad) X 2(similarity level between parent brand and extended product: high vs. low) betweensubject factorial design. Subjects in the study are drawn from 4~6 grade class at an elementary school. A total of 120 students participate in this experiment and 115 data are used for analysis. For low-level similarity condition, we choose gagglin(i.e., gaggle brand in Korea) as parent brand and chocolate is selected for extended category. For high-level similarity condition, we choose also gagglin as parent brand and gum is selected for extended category. And we make print advertising for manipulating advertising type and similarity level, then a total of 4 types of advertising is made for this study. We analyze data using a 2(advertising type: elaborational ad vs. relational ad) × 2(similarity level between parent brand and extended product: high vs. low) analysis of variance(ANOVA). The results of ANOVA show that the interaction effect between advertising type(elaborational or relational ad) and similarity level(high or low) is significant(F=12.764, p<0.01). In addition, the results show that children evaluate favorably extended product in relational advertising condition(M=5.16) than elaborational advertising condition(M=4.29) when the similarity between parent brand and extended product is high(F=4.353, p<0.05). On the other hand, children`s evaluation is reversed when the similarity between parent brand and extended product is low. Specifically, children make more positive evaluation on extended product in elaborational advertising condition(M=5.24) than relational advertising condition(M=4.02; F=8.879, p<0.01). Thus, our predictions are supported. This research has theoretical and practical implications. First, this research can contribute theoretically for developing knowledge about child consumers. This research extends the boundary of brand extension research from adult to children consumers and we demonstrate that the impact of advertising strategy in brand extension can be changed for children. Second, this research suggests practical implication for selecting advertising type in children product category. When the similarity between parent and extended brand is high, marketers should use relational advertising for child consumers, whereas elaborational advertising is better when the similarity is low.

KCI등재

10한,중 소비자의 소셜커머스 이용 불평행동 및 재구매의도에 관한 연구

저자 : 주혁균 ( Yi Jun Zhou ) , 류미현 ( Mi Hyun Ryu ) , 이승신 ( Seung Sin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 23권 2호 발행 연도 : 2012 페이지 : pp. 225-248 (24 pages)

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최근 한국과 중국의 소셜커머스 시장은 급속도로 확산되고 있으므로 이에 따른 다양한 유형의 소비자문제들이 발 생하면서 소비자들의 불만이 급증하고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 한국, 중국소비자를 대상으로 소셜커머스 이용시 가장 불만족한 유형을 비교하고, 불만 경험 시 불평행동의 유형별 정도를 파악해보고자 한다. 또한 한국, 중국소비 자들이 각각 소셜커머스를 이용하여 재구매의 의도가 어느 정도 있는지와 재구매의도에 영향을 미치는 요인들이 무 엇인지 비교하여 살펴보고자 한다. 본 연구의 궁극적인 목적은 한국과 중국의 소셜커머스 이용에 있어 소비자 측에서는 양국 소비자들의 불만을 최 소화하고, 만일 소비자들이 불만족이 있다면 적극적인 불평행동을 유도할 수 있는 소비자교육의 기초 자료를 제공 할 것이며, 소비자들의 무분별한 재구매를 감소시키고 정확한 판단 아래 재구매행동이 이루어질 수 있도록 하며, 아 울러 기업 측에서는 소비자들의 불만족 및 불평행동을 파악하여 고객만족 및 재구매의도를 향상시킬 수 있으며, 특 히 중국 진출 기업에게는 유용한 정보제공을 할 수 있을 것이다. 연구결과, 첫째, 소셜커머스 소비자불만족은 한국보다 중국소비자들이 더 높은 것으로 나타났고 하위영역인 사전 기대불일치불만, 모바일 및 결제서비스불만, 사후서비스불만의 세 영역 모두 중국소비자의 불만이 더 높게 나타났 다. 둘째, 한·중 소비자의 소셜커머스 소비자불평행동은 한국보다 중국 소비자들이 사적, 공적불평행동 모두 더 많 이 하는 것으로 나타났다. 중국 소비자가 한국 소비자보다 소비자불만족과 소비자불평행동이 높은 것은 아직까지 중국에서 소셜커머스에 대한 구체적인 정책이나 법률의 부재로 인한 결과라 생각된다. 셋째, 한·중 소비자의 소셜 커머스 재구매의도에는 통계적으로는 유의한 결과가 없었지만 전체적으로 볼 때 중국소비자가 한국소비자에 비해 소셜커머스 재구매의도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 한국, 중국소비자 모두 구매횟수가 많을수록 재구매의도가 높게 나타난 결과를 볼 때 소셜커머스 이용 관련 소비자교육시에는 소비자들의 의사결정과 관련되어 제품 구매시 습관적인 구매가 이루어지지 않도록 구매 의사결정관련 소비자교육이 이루어져야 할 것이다. 또한 한국소비자들의 경우 사적대응행동을 많이 할수록 오히려 재구매의도는 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 사적행동으로는 소비자들의 불만이 기업에 반영되기 어려우므로 기업에서 소비자들의 잠재 불만을 파악하기 전에는 소비자들의 불만이 결국은 재구매 의도를 낮추는 결과를 가져올 것이므로 기업은 향후 공적행동과 함께 사적 불평행동에 대한 기업의 적극적인 파악 이 요구된다.


Social Commerce market already has rapid grown and got strong spread for consumers` behavior in South Korea for consumption behavior. Aslo many consumers in China has almost same phenomenon in using social commerce near from big city. However, more problems such as service quality decline and consumers` complaints occurred as commerce market grows both in South Korea and China. This paper is related consumers` behavior using social commerce market. It reviews situation and explanation of current social commerce market both in South Korea and China. Consumers` dissatisfaction, complaints, repurchase intention were examined. This research especially focused for analyzing the differences for consumers` between South Korea and China. Survey using questionnaire was designed and conducted in October 6th -25th, 2011 for this study. The questionnaire were delivered to 20s` and 30s` South Korean and Chinese consumers through Internet. The total number of 382 consumers were used for this research. The survey was conducted Beijing, Xinjiang, Hebei and Shanghai in China. In South Korea, quesionnaire were delivered in districts Seoul, Inechon, Kangwando. The major findings of this research were as follows: First, Chinese consumers have more frequently visit, more purchasing behavior, more diverse items purchased were shown in social commerce than South Korean consumers. The level of dissatisfaction for social commerce was found higher in Chinese consumers. This result is supposed to be caused by larger rapid growth in internet shopping, home shopping. Second, Chinese consumers were reported to be more satisfied with social commerce than S. Korean ones, and this disparity is significant. Third, Chinese consumers committed more complaining behaviors than consumers in South Korea. This difference was verified to be significant. It is supposed that is caused lack of legal regulation on social commerce market in China, compared to South Korea. Fourth, Social Commerce consumer repurchase intentions were higher for consumers in China compare to South Korea. The number of purchases, number of visits per month were affect repurchase behavior in social commerce both in South Korean and Chinese consumers. Based on findings, this study propose some suggestions on improving consumer policy and education. First, because South Korean electronic trade is comparatively more developed and more policy-ruled than China, Related legal laws and regulations for consumer protection are insufficient in China, yet. As the market rapidly develop, more diverse, severe problems will arise. I is necessary for formulating related policies and laws especially in social commere market for protecting consumers. Second, it is necessary giving consumer education for consumers related electroing transaction because of rapid growth and professional knowledge for using social commerce. It is strongly recommended to express complaints through several channels such as company, non-government organization, government. Also it is necessary to educate consumers for dealing with dissatisfaction and resolve the problems.

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