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수록정보
22권2호(2011) |수록논문 수 : 14
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22권2호(2011년) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1고객지향적 서비스 상품 개발: 하나은행 사례

저자 : 김병도 ( Byung Do Kim ) , 전종근 ( Jong Kun Jun )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 1-22 (22 pages)

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본 연구는 금융기관의 신서비스 개발 역량과 성과를 사례 연구를 통하여 분석하였다. 문헌연구를 통해 성공적인 신서비스 개발 프로세스의 요건을 파악하고 하나은행의 사례에서 이러한 요건들이 어떻게 나타나는지 비교 분석하였다. 하나은행은 공식적인 개발 프로세스의 보유, 테스트 마케팅 생략을 통한 출시시간 단축, 상업화 이후의 상품 리뷰를 통한 고객의 반응 추적 및 상품 보완 등에서 강점이 있었다. 반면, 고객을 신서비스 개발 프로세스에 적극적으로 참여시키는 부분, 위험을 감수하고 혁신을 장려하는 조직문화, 정보기술에 의존하는 신서비스 개발 프로세스 등에서는 개선이 필요한 것으로 파악되었다. 하나은행은 이러한 공식적인 신서비스 개발 프로세스와 함께 유연하고 자유로운 조직문화, 영업부서와 상품개발부서간의 긴밀한 협력을 결합하여 신서비스 개발 경쟁력을 강화하였다. 아울러 하나은행이 최근에 개발한 예금상품들의 경쟁력을 절충형 상품에 대한 소비자반응이라는 관점에서 분석한 결과, 첫째, 기능적 요소와 쾌락적 요소의 성공적 결합으로 인한 타협효과가 나타났을 가능성, 둘째, 금리변동기에 나타나는 상황적 방어초점이 절충형 상품에 대한 소비자의 긍정적 반응을 유발하였을 가능성 등을 파악하였으며 그에 따른 시사점을 제시하였다.


This paper presents a case study on the new service development competence and performance of a bank. The authors compared the new service development(NSD) process of Hana Bank with the recommended NSD practices derived from literature review. Hana bank`s NSD process shares a few success factors with Alam and Perry(2001)`s customer-oriented new service development process such as focusing on idea generation and screening, following a sequential development process, and skipping test marketing to save time to market. Hana Bank showed its NSD competence by having a formal NSD process, omitting test marketing for a quick launch, and modifying its service followed by tracking customer response after launch. There were some practices that Hana Bank was not up to the mark including participating customers into the NSD process, cultivating an innovative and risk taking organizational culture, and utilizing IT throughout the NSD process. Hana Bank accomplished its NSD competence by combining its formal NSD process with a flexible organizational culture and close cooperation between functional departments. The Hana 369 Fixed Deposit is an innovative new savings product, which allows its customers to withdraw their money at every three months without penalty. It appealed to the consumers who wanted to have a little flexible deposit plan because they are uncertain about when they needed the money back. The new savings product has been very successful since it was launched in July, 2009. Another new saving product is S-Line Installment Savings, which offers additional interests to the customers who lost their weights successfully on its due day. These products have been successful because they both reflect the social and economic trends or situations. Another possible explanation for the success of the products is the compromise effect. Compromise alternative is preferred when people seek loss aversion, because its gains and losses are both smaller than those of other alternatives (Simonson and Tversky, 1992). The Hana 369 Fixed Deposit is a compromise alternative compared with one year fixed deposit plans and MMDAs. When the interest rates are rising, most people would not put their money in the fixed deposit plans for fear of opportunity loss. Especially, those people with prevention focus will likely to choose the Hana 369 Fixed Deposit over other alternatives since they want to minimize their losses. The principle of hedonic dominance is also useful to explain the consumer preference for the compromise alternative with hedonic elements such as the S-Line Installment Savings. Consumers prefer products with hedonic elements when both the hedonic and functional elements are above cutoff levels (Chitturi, Raghunathan, and Mahajan, 2007). Applying the theory to the S-Line Installment Savings, the hedonic element of going on a diet when you open an account will be attractive only when the interest rate is above cutoff level. The company will need to figure out what is the cutoff level of interest rate when people are planning to open a savings account. Additionally, trendy products are subject to the changes of the trends. The task of new service development department should be inclusive of continuous modification of products based on the monitoring of the trend changes. Based on the case study of Hana Bank the authors discussed the directions for the future NSD.

KCI등재

2소구속성유형별로 유발되는 감정과 마음가짐의 제품평가효과

저자 : 최낙환 ( Nak Hwan Choi )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 23-59 (37 pages)

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제품의 소비에서 추구하는 서로 다른 목표와 동기는 소비자로 하여금 구매의사결정과정에서 대안 평가의 차이를 유발시키며, 소비자의 제품선택에서 중요한 역할을 하게 된다. 이러한 제품평가의 차이는 소비의 목적에 따라 문제 해결과 관련되는 양립성 원리에 기인하지만, 소비자의 제품구매와 소비에 필요한 보유자원과의 양립성에 관련된 연구는 매우 부족하다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 패밀리레스토랑의 속성을 쾌락속성과 수행속성, 그리고 신뢰속성요인으로 구분하고, 속성유형별 소구방법에 따른 감정유발에 대한 소비자의 시간과 자금자원에 대응되는 마음가짐 상태의 조절효과와 유발된 감정과 마음가짐상태의 제품평가에 대한 상호작용효과를 살펴보았다. 연구 결과, 제품의 속성유형별 소구에 따라 서로 다른 감정이 유발되고, 이렇게 유발된 감정이 제품평가에 미치는 영향이 마음가짐상태에 따라 달라짐을 발견하였다. 즉 쾌락속성에 의한 소구정보가 유발하는 촉진감정은 정서적 마음가짐 상태의 경우 더 크게 느끼며, 제품의 수행속성에 의한 소구가 유발하는 촉진감정은 효용극대화 마음가짐 상태의 경우 더 크게 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 신뢰속성에 의한 정보가 유발하는 예방감정은 정서적 마음가짐 상태의 소비자와 효용극대화 마음가짐 상태의 소비자 간에 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 쾌락속성에 의한 소구로 유발되는 촉진감정은 정서적 마음가짐 상태에서 제품평가에 더욱 큰 영향을 미치며, 수행속성에 의한 소구로 유발되는 촉진감정은 효용극대화 마음가짐 상태에서 제품평가에 더욱 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 신뢰속성에 의한 소구정보가 유발하는 예방감정이 제품평가에 미치는 영향정도는 정서적 마음가짐과 효용극대화 마음가짐 상태에서 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다.


A variety of goals and motivations which are pursued by consumers in product consumption differentiate preference between alternatives in purchase decision process and play an important role in consumers` product choice tasks. The preference differences due to problem types are explained by compatibility principle which is closely related to achieving consumption goals. However the existing studies concerned with compatibility principle in the respect of possessed resources such as time and money that are required to purchase product are insufficient. Therefore this research investigates the moderating effects of mind-sets compatible with consumers` resources such as time and money on the effects of appeal types of attribute information on inducing emotion and the interactive effects of induced emotion and mind-sets on product evaluation. To examine the moderating effects restaurant was chosen as a research object. The restaurant attributes are classified into three types such as hedonic attributes, performance attributes and reliability attributes that were used as evaluation criteria by consumers. Three types of scenarios and advertisements were developed to induce the specific affect that is compatible with each type of attribute. The scenario and advertisement for a hedonic message was developed by using the hedonic attributes and terms such as aesthetics, sensory pleasure, fantasy, fun, etc. The scenario and advertisement for performance message was developed by using the performance attributes and terms such as self-achievement, goal-achievement, advancement, etc. And the scenario and advertisement for reliability message was developed by using reliability attributes and terms concerned with safety, absence of accident and absence of negative outcomes. And scenario and picture focused on time was also developed to be used to induce emotion-focused mind-set, and scenario and picture focused on money was also developed to be used to induce utility-maximization mind-set. 2(emotion-focused, utility-maximization focused)×3(hedonic message, performance message, reliability message) research design that results in 6 groups was set up. A total of 330 undergraduate students participated in the main survey. Altogether 330 undergraduate students in marketing classes were recruited and assigned to one of six groups and each group was consisted of 55 participants who answer the questionnaire given. To review internal consistency and validity of measurement variables, confirmative factor analysis of using Varimax rotation method and Cronbach`s alpha analysis were carried out. Cronbach`s alpha values of items concerned with promotion emotion, items related with prevention emotion, and items for restaurant evaluation were turned out over 0.8 and internal consistency among measurement question items was confirmed. In addition, results of the factor analysis for each of two mind-set groups were also showed to be loaded meaningfully on relevant factor of each measurement question item. Discrimination validity between measurement question concepts and convergent validity within them were confirmed by securing that factor loadings of non-related question items were of no meaning. Measurement number of summing average of related question items per each composition concept variable was used in hypotheses verification. The moderating roles of mind-set on the effects of types of restaurant attributes on the emotion responses were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA and the interactive effects of the mind-set on the roles of emotion responses induced differently from three types of scenarios and advertisements on evaluation were analyzed through usage of parallel test. The results of testing hypotheses show that different emotion are induced by appeal types of attribute information and the effect of induced emotion on product evaluation is differed by consumers` mind-sets. In other words, appeal contents with hedonic attribute information can help consumers feel promotional emotion more in the case of emotional mind-set, whereas appeal contents with performance attribute information can help consumers feel promotion emotion more in the case of value maximization mind-set. There is no significant difference effects of prevention emotion between emotional mind-set and value maximization mind-set conditions when reliability attribute informations are used to be contents of appeal. In addition, promotion emotion induced by the appeal type of hedonic attribute information influences on product evaluation more in emotional mind-set condition than in value maximization mind-set. Promotion emotion induced by the appeal type of performance attribute affects product evaluation more in value maximization mind-set condition than in emotional mind-set. But there is no significant difference between emotional mind-set and value maximization mind-set in the effect of prevention emotion induced by reliability attribute appeal on product evaluation. Therefore, the main contribution of this study is to extend prior affect-as-information researches by demonstrating that consumers evaluate restaurant on the bases of interaction between mind-set and specific feelings induced by certain types of appeal developed by using restaurant attributes compatible with the emotion pursued.

KCI등재

3미국 노인들의 빈곤이행에 대한 삶의 사건들이 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

저자 : 이영애 ( Young Ae Lee )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 61-87 (27 pages)

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본 연구의 목적은 미국의 빈곤노인들에 대한 노년기 삶의 다양한 경험들의 영향과 빈곤이행 경향을 분석하는데 있다. 고령화로 인한 사회적 문제는 점점 더 심각해지고 있고, 노인빈곤은 개인들의 삶을 통틀어 복잡한 인관관계에 의해 발생한다고 할 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구를 통해 노인빈곤에 대한 이해를 증진시키고, 고령화시대를 맞이하는 기본적인 정책적 제언을 하고자 한다. 본 연구에 사용된 자료는 미국의 “Health and Retirement Study”(HRS)로 2년에 한번씩 수집되는 전국적인 패널조사이다. 본 연구는 노인빈곤의 특성과 빈곤이행에 대한 동태적인 경향을 살펴보기 위해 HRS가 처음으로 수집되었던 1992년부터 가장 최근의 자료인 2006년까지 총 8차년도의 자료를 대상으로 50세 이상(HRS 원자료의 표본이 50세이상부터 표집되었음)의 30,405명의 노인들을 조사대상으로 하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 지난 15년간의 미국의 동태적인 노인빈곤경향을 파악하기 위해 빈곤탈출, 빈곤재진입 위험율을 추정함에 있어 Kaplan-Meier product-limt 추정법을 이용하였다. 또한 노인의 빈곤이행에 영향을 미치는 다양한 노년기 삶의 경험들의 영향력을 분석하기 위해 이산시간위험모델(discrete-time hazard model)을 적용하여 빈곤진입과 빈곤탈출 모형을 분리하여 분석하였다. 이러한 다변량분석기법은 노인빈곤에 대해 관찰되지 않는 이질성을 이해하는데 기초적인 도움을 주게 되며, 나아가 노인빈곤의 원인을 보다 실질적으로 규명하는데 도움을 줄 수 있게 된다. 본 연구의 대략적인 결과는 다음과 같다. Kaplan-Meier product-limt 추정법을 이용하여 전체 응답자들의 지난 15년간의 빈곤탈출율과 재진입율을 분석한 결과, 빈곤지속기간이 증가할수록 빈곤탈출율은 감소하는 것으로 나타났으며, 비빈곤기간이 증가함에도 불구하고 빈곤재진입율은 약 10%정도로 일정한 것으로 나타났다. 노인빈곤이행에 영향을 주는 요인들을 이산시간위험모델로 분석한 결과, 노인빈곤진입에 영향을 주는 사건들로는 은퇴와 나빠진 건강상태로 나타났으며, 빈곤탈출에 영향을 주는 요인들로는 은퇴, 증가된 총자산, 정부 복지프로그램의 수급자 선정 등의 사건들로 나타났다. 생애변수 선정된 총 노동시장 참여 년수와 결혼지속년수는 노인의 빈곤진입과 탈출에 모두 주요한 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 빈곤지속기간이 증가할수록 빈곤탈출율이 감소하기 때문에 한번 빈곤에 진입한 노인들의 경우는 그들의 노년기를 빈곤하게 보낼 수밖에 없다는 것을 의미하며, 노인들의 빈곤 재진입율이 일정하게 유지되는 결과를 통해 노년층의 소득수준이 빈곤선 이하로 떨어질 위험에 노출되어 있는 가능성이 매우 높다는 것을 추론할 수 있다. 은퇴의 경우 빈곤진입과 탈출에 모두 중요한 변수로 작용하고 있음을 나타낸다. 따라서 은퇴기 이후를 대비하기 위한 노년기 소득보장대책이 강화되어야 함을 제언할 수 있다. 노년기는 생애과정을 통해 축적된 적정한 수준의 경제적 안정이 보장되어 있지 않거나, 만성질환의 발생으로 인한 건강악화로 인해 최소한의 경제적 안정없이 생을 마감해야 할지도 모르는 위험에 노출되어 있다는 것을 의미하게 된다. 경제적으로 취약한 노인집단인 빈곤노인들과 장애노인들의 건강불균형을 정책적으로 해소하고 그들을 위한 각종 보장혜택을 강구하는 방안이 고민되어야 할 것이다.


The purpose of this study is to examine the likelihood of poverty transition and the effects of different events on poor elderly. This study is important because the aging population has grown rapidly, and elderly poverty involves many complex relationships across an individual`s life span. The contributions of this study are to improve the understanding of elderly poverty and to provide considerable policy implications for elderly demographic changes in the future. The data for this study are from the years 1992-2006 of the Health and Retirement Study(HRS) and the sample consists of 30,405 elderly individuals from eight waves. To examine the incidence and dynamics of elderly poverty, the poverty exit(re-entry) hazard rate based on Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates are used. Entry into and exit from elderly poverty models are separately used to estimate the conditional relationship between poverty transition and multiple trigger events as well as various covariates using the discrete-time hazard model. These multivariate techniques show a more realistic picture of elderly poverty transition in terms of providing a preliminary explanation of the unobserved heterogeneity of the elderly poverty. The major findings are: (1) in terms of poverty entry and exit rates, the exit rate was decreased during the 1990s, but the rate was increased during the 2000s while the entry rate fell somewhat during the 1990s and rose somewhat during the 2000s; (2) as the length of the poverty spell increased, the probability of poverty exit decreased; (3) as the non-poverty duration increases, the poverty reentry rates are constant at around 10 percent; (4) retirement and a negative change in health condition both have significant effects on elderly poverty entry, while retirement, increase in total wealth, and becoming insured from any government health program all have significant effects on elderly poverty exit; and (5) life history variables, such as total years of work and length of marriage have significant effects on both elderly poverty entry and exit. Results from the hazard rates(exit and re-entry rate) imply that a person who falls into poverty during his or her elderly years is highly likely to remain poor because the exit probabilities fall as the length of the poverty spell increases. In addition, the results of constant re-entry rates infer that the elderly population is exposed to the risk of falling to an income that puts them below the poverty line. Results from multivariate analysis suggest that retirement has an important role in elderly poverty transition and a negative change in health condition also has positive impact on elderly poverty entry. Thus, effective income support programs and social policies for the elderly help to prevent elderly individuals from becoming poor.

KCI등재

4소비자의 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도 및 구매의도의 관련요인 분석

저자 : 허은정 ( Eun Jeong Huh )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 89-111 (23 pages)

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최근 우리나라에서도 윤리적 상품에 대한 소비자들의 관심이 높아지고 있으며 윤리적 상품을 구매하는 소비자들이 점차 증가하고 있다. 본 연구는 '수정된 계획행동이론'에 근거하여 소비자들의 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도 및 구매의도에 영향을 미치는 변수들을 규명하고 이들 변수들과 구매의도간의 인과관계를 분석하는 것을 기본목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 만 18세 이상의 성인소비자들을 대상으로 온라인과 오프라인을 통해 자료를 수집하였고 최종 888부가 분석에 사용되었다. 주요한 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 조사대상자들 중에서 65.3%는 윤리적 상품을 구매한 경험이 있는 소비자였으며, 제일 많은 비율이 구매한 윤리적 상품은 친환경농산물, 공정무역 커피, 초콜릿, 의류 및 패션제품의 순으로 나타났다. 조사대상자들의 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도는 7점 기준으로 볼 때 4.85로 윤리적 상품에 대해 약간 긍정적인 태도를 가지고 있었고, 구매의도 역시 7점 기준으로 볼 때 평균이 5.04점으로 윤리적 상품을 구매할 의사가 다소 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 인구사회학적 변수에 따른 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도와 구매의도의 차이를 살펴본 결과, 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도는 교육수준, 월평균 가계소득, 직업에 따라 유의한 차이를 보였고 윤리적 상품에 대한 구매의도는 교육수준, 종교, 월평균 가계소득에 따라 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 특별히 교육수준이 높은 집단(대졸이상)과 월평균 가계소득이 높은 집단(500만원 이상)은 그렇지 않은 집단에 비해 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도가 긍정적일뿐만 아니라 구매의도 또한 높은 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 윤리적 상품에 대한 태도에 유의한 영향을 미치는 변수는 보편적 가치, 윤리적 의무, 이타주의, 지각된 소비자 효율성, 인구사회학적 변수 중에는 여성, 교육수준이 고졸보다 높은 집단, 월평균 가계소득이 높은 집단으로 분석되었다. 윤리적 상품에 대한 구매의도의 경우 이타주의와 태도만이 정적 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 태도변수를 매개변수로 하여 윤리적 상품의 구매의도에 대한 경로분석 결과, 이타주의와 태도는 윤리적 상품의 구매의도에 대해 직접적인 인과효과를 가지고 있었고, 보편성가치, 지각된 소비자 효율성, 윤리적 의무, 성별(여성), 전문대졸, 대학재학/대졸이상, 가계소득(최상 집단)은 태도변수를 매개로 한 간접적인 인과효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 윤리적 상품의 구매의도에 가장 큰 영향을 주는 변수는 태도로 나타났다.


Recently many consumers have been concerned about ethical products and the real purchasing power on the ethical products have been increased in Korea. The purposes of this study are to investigate major factors to influence the consumer`s attitude and purchase intention on the ethical products and to analyze the casual relationship among independent variables, attitude, and purchase intention. For the theoretical model of ethical consumer decision-making, this study is based on the ``modified theory of planned behavior`` by Shaw & Shui(2002a; 2002b; 2003). The independent variables in this study included three consumer values related to ethical consumption(universalism, benevolence, and self-direction), ethical obligation, self-identity, perceived consumer effectiveness, human relation, altruism, and the socio-demographic variables. For this study, the ethical products include eco-friendly products which are no harm both to nature and human body and various fair-trade products which are designed to contribute to economical self-sufficiency of poor workers in the Third World. The data were collected from both on-line and off-line survey in March, 2010 and 888 samples were used to the final analyses. The major results are follows. First, 65.3% of the sample had purchased at least one or more the ethical products. The high purchase percentage among the ethical products was the order of eco-friendly agricultural products, fair-trade coffee, fair-trade chocolate, and fair-trade clothing & fashion products. The average score about consumer`s attitude on the ethical products was 4.85 point at 7 point criteria, and it means that the respondents have some positive attitude on the ethical products. The average score about consumer`s purchase intention on the ethical products was 5.04 point at 7 point criteria, meaning the respondents have some purchase intention on the ethical products. Second, the results of impacts of the socio-demographic variables on consumer`s attitude on the ethical products indicated that there were significant differences among the educational level, the average monthly household income, and the occupation. For the consumer`s purchase intention on the ethical products, there were significant differences among the educational level, the religion, and the average monthly household income. Especially, the groups with the college graduate and over and the highest household income had not only positive attitude on the ethical products, but also high purchase intention on the ethical products. Third, the results of the regression analysis indicated that the value of universalism, ethical obligation, perceived consumer effectiveness, and altruism positively influenced on the consumer`s attitude on the ethical products. Among the socio-demographic variables, women in terms of sex, the groups both college and college graduate and over in terms of the educational level, and the group with 4,000 thousand won and over in terms of the average monthly household income positively influenced on the consumer`s attitude. Among significant factors influencing on the consumer`s attitude, the value of universalism had the greatest influence and the next are ethical obligation, the education level with college and college graduate and over, the household income with 4,000 thousand won and over. For the purchase intention on the ethical product, only altruism and attitude were significant factors, and the attitude was greater influence than the altruism. Finally, the results of path analysis indicated that the attitude and altruism had direct effects on the purchase intention of the ethical products, while the value of universalism, ethical obligation, perceived consumer effectiveness, women in terms of sex, college graduate and over in terms of educational level, and the group with 4,000 thousand won in terms of average monthly household income had indirect effects on purchase intention. This result implies that in order to increase the purchase of ethical products, it is important for consumers to have positive attitude toward the ethical products. The results of this study has some implications of consumer`s purchase behavior on the ethical products for the experts at consumer studies and marketing. For example, the consumer educators help some groups(for instance, men and the consumer with the high school graduate) to have positive attitude toward the ethical products. For the marketing managers, the results of this study may help to create a sales strategy about, the ethical products, implying that some groups(women, the consumers with college graduate and over, and the group with 4,000 thousand won and over at monthly household income) had positive attitude and higher probability to purchase the ethical products. This study included the ethical obligation, self-identity, and attitude as the major independent variables based on the ``modified theory of planned behavior``, but the results indicated that the self-identity didn`t have significant effect on both the consumer`s attitude and the purchase intention. The further studies are needed to elaborate the measure of the self-identity and to help the understanding of consumer`s ethical consumption behavior with the quantitative data.

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5복제품이 소비자의 명품브랜드 태도에 미치는 영향 -진품사용자와 복제품사용자 태도 비교-

저자 : 유재미 ( Jae Mee Yoo )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 113-137 (25 pages)

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복제품이 소비자의 명품브랜드 태도에 주는 영향을 명품 사용자유형을 고려해서 탐색했다. 명품사용자를 진품사용자와 복제품사용자로 구분하고 복제품의 영향력이 사용자유형에 따라 다른 지, 다르다면 왜 그런지 등을 실험을 통해 살펴보았다. 복제품 사용경험은 명품브랜드 태도 형성에 영향을 주는 변수로 주목받고 있다. 연구결과, 복제품이 소비자의 명품브랜드 태도에 주는 영향은 진품사용자, 복제품사용자별로 다르게 나타났다. 복제품은 진품사용자의 브랜드태도에는 부정적 영향을 주지만 복제품사용자의 브랜드태도에는 유의한 영향을 주지 못했다. 진품사용자의 경우 복제품이 명품이 가진 특권, 부, 높은 사회경제적 지위 등의 상징적 가치를 떨어뜨린다고 인식하고 이는 진품사용자의 브랜드태도를 하락시키는 것으로 나타났다. 반면 복제품사용자가 인식하는 명품의 상징적 가치에는 유의한 영향을 주지 못했고 이는 유의한 태도 변화를 일으키지 못했다. 즉 복제품은 진품사용자와 복제품사용자의 명품브랜드 태도에 각각 다른 영향을 미치는데 이는 사용자가 복제품을 명품의 상징적 가치를 하락시키는 것으로 인식하는가에서 비롯되었다. 또한 복제품이 브랜드태도에 주는 영향은 명품 사용자유형과 함께 개인의 명품 수용동기에 의해서도 조절되는 것으로 나타났다. 진품사용자의 경우, 명품의 사회적 의미를 중시하는 사회적응 동기를 가진 집단에서 개인적 의미를 중시하는 자아표현 동기를 가진 집단에 비해 복제품으로 인한 태도변화가 더 크게 나타났다. 반면 복제품사용자의 경우, 어떤 동기로 명품을 수용했는가는 복제품으로 인한 태도변화에 유의한 영향을 주지 않았다.


This paper has empirically tested how counterfeiting of luxury brands affects the consumers` attitude toward brand. Little has been empirically studied about the impact of counterfeiting on consumers` attitude toward luxury brand, moreover the impact has been sometimes found to be negative while sometimes not to be negative. This research has classified luxury brands users into two groups- genuine-item users and counterfeit-item users-to draw clearer explanation regarding the controversial result because counterfeit experience has been found to impact on forming attitude toward brand. First, this research has tried to compare the impact of counterfeiting on the attitude of genuine-item consumers with that of counterfeit-item consumers. Second, it has investigated why two types of consumers respond to counterfeiting in a different way if they do so. The social value of luxury brand, owning luxury brands mean wealth, privilege, and prestige of users to other people, has examined to explain the different responses of consumers. Lastly, this study has considered personal motivation to luxury brand to explain the different process of responses. This is because researchers have persisted that it is needed to consider the personal value as well as social value of luxury brand to fully understand the consumers` purchase behavior. Two group before-after design was accepted to test hypothesis; two groups of consumers (genuine-item consumers and counterfeit-item consumers) evaluate the brand repeatedly before and after the exposure of experimental material containing counterfeiting proliferation news of the experimental brand. Louis Vuitton was chosen for the experiment because it is one of famous global luxury brands and familiar to subjects in Korea as well. Twenty to forty nine aged female subjects have participated in the experiment via the web. Genuine-item consumers are defined as those who have bought only genuine items of Louis Vuitton in latest three years. Counterfeit-item consumers are defined as those who have bought counterfeit items(having an experience with counterfeit items) in three years; those who have bought genuine items as well as counterfeit items are classified into counterfeit item consumers. The research has shown that the impact of counterfeiting on consumers` attitude toward luxury brand is contingent on the types of consumers (F(1, 98)=4.380, p=.039). Counterfeiting has negative effect on the attitude of genuine-item consumers but insignificant effect on that of counterfeit-item consumers (genuine-item consumers: Mbefore=5.42 vs. Mafter=4.58, planned contrast test t=3.535, p=.001; counterfeit-item consumers Mbefore=5.62 vs. Mafter=5.50, planned contrast test t=0.505, p=.614) Genuine-item consumers have perceived the social value of luxury brand such as privilege, prestige, wealth etc. to become weak when counterfeiting increases. This is because the more users increase because of counterfeiting the more negative network effect would occur. That leads consumers` attitude toward brand to become down. On the other hand, counterfeiting would not influence on the perception of counterfeit-item consumers on social value of brand. That leads consumers` attitude to be changed insignificantly. To counterfeit item consumers, increasing counterfeiting of brand could mean popular one and give the opportunity to buy luxury items with lower price. They usually have bought counterfeit items knowing it is not genuine. They have been known to enjoy social value of luxury items with counterfeits. Consequently, the changed perception on social value of luxury brand has found to moderate the relationship between the counterfeiting and the consumers` attitude change. In short, the impact of counterfeiting on consumers` brand attitude is dependent on types of consumers. This because how counterfeiting influence differently the consumers` perception on social value of luxury brand. Those who perceive the social value of luxury brand to become downgrade when counterfeiting increases, have changed attitude more negatively while those who are not have changed insignificantly. The research also has shown that the personal motivation to luxury brand such as self expressive and social adjustive is found to interact with the types of consumers in forming a brand attitude when counterfeiting increases. Genuine-item consumers with social adjustive motivation have changed their attitude greater than with self expressive motivation when counterfeiting increases. However, counterfeit-item consumers have changed their attitude insignificantly regardless of their motivation.

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6비금전적 인센티브의 효과: 기부 기회 제공을 통한 소비자 동기화 가능성을 중심으로

저자 : 한승희 ( Seung Hee Han )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 139-152 (14 pages)

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본 연구는 금전적 보상 위주의 인센티브 시스템을 보완할 수 있는 비금전적 보상을 사용한 인센티브 시스템의 가능성을 타진해 보고자 하였다. 구체적으로, 현대 소비자들이 물질적 소비 외에도 개념적 소비를 통해 큰 만족감을 경험하고 동기화 된다는 점에 착안하여, 대표적인 개념적 소비 활동 중 하나인 자선 단체에의 기부 기회 제공을 통해서 표적 과제 수행을 동기화할 수 있는지 살펴보았다. 이를 위해, 피험자에게 특정 과제를 부여하고 조건 별로 상이한 인센티브 시스템에 노출한 후, 과제 수행 수준을 비교하였다. 분석 결과, 자선 단체에의 기부라는 비금전적 인센티브에 노출된 피험자들의 과제 수행이 개인적인 보상이라는 금전적 인센티브에 노출된 피험자들의 과제 수행보다 월등함을 확인할 수 있었다. 더욱이 금전적 인센티브에 노출된 피험자들에 비해 비금전적 인센티브에 노출된 피험자들이 과제 수행 이후 자신의 경험이 더욱 의미 있었다고 평가했으며, 차후에 훨씬 적은 금액의 보상을 받고도 기꺼이 동일한 과제를 수행할 의향이 있음을 보고하였다. 이는 소비자 자신에게 물질적 이득이 돌아가지 않는 개념적 소비 기회의 부여를 통해서도 소비자들을 성공적으로 동기화하고 소비자 만족을 이끌어낼 수 있음을 보여주는 결과라고 할 수 있다. 본 연구는 소비자 동기화에 대한 이해를 넓혔다는 학문적 의의를 가짐과 동시에 구체적으로 새로운 인센티브 시스템의 가능성을 제시함으로써 마케팅 실무자들에게도 많은 시사점을 제공하고 있다.


Many marketers take interests in motivating potential consumers to initiate or to continue engaging in the desired consumption behavior. One of the most prevalent tools marketers use to achieve this goal is to provide consumers with tangible financial rewards. For instance, department stores reward their customers with gift certificate in return for the money they spent shopping in the stores: credit card companies reward their customers with points which could be later redeemed and used as cash. Naturally, there has been lots of research exploring ways to design an incentive program that can better motivate consumers. A notable commonality among this line of research is that they focus almost exclusively on the use of tangible financial rewards. The effectiveness of tangible financial rewards, however, has been seriously questioned. Studies showed that financial rewards very often have minimal influence on performance and sometimes even decrease the level of performance by destroying intrinsic motivation. This called forth the need to design an incentive program that utilizes incentives other than financial rewards. Recent studies in consumer behavior emphasize the extent to which modern consumers engage in so-called conceptual consumption(Ariely and Norton 2009). As technology has paved the way for meeting basic needs, consumers have developed psychological avenues for occupying their consumption energies, moving from consuming the tangibles to consuming concepts. Indeed, it is not difficult to find instances where consumers forgo positive physical consumption in order to engage in conceptual consumption. For example, people often choose to donate money that could have been used for one`s own sake to charitable organizations, consuming the idea that one is an altruistic person who contributes to the social welfare. Moreover, studies found that this kind of charitable giving offers greater happiness and psychological satisfaction than mere physical consumption. Thus, it may be the case that one can better motivate consumers by providing them not with financial rewards but with an opportunity to engage in conceptual consumption. The present study examined the very possibility: I hypothesized that an opportunity to make a charitable giving will motivate participants to engage in the target behavior more so than an opportunity to receive a financial rewards for oneself. The hypothesis was tested with a laboratory study. Ninety-nine individuals from a university community participated in exchange for a 3000 won show-up payment. Participants were given a task (i.e. immersing one`s hands as long as one can in a tub filled with cold water) and were asked to do their best at it. Depending on the condition they were randomly assigned to, participants were 1) not provided with any incentive (Control 1 Condition), 2) provided with financial incentive where they earned extra money for themselves proportional to the amount of time they endured with their hands immersed in the cold water (Money to Self Condition), 3) provided with non-financial incentive where they earned extra money for a charity proportional to the amount of time they endured with their hands immersed in the cold water (Money to Charity Condition), or 4) not provided with any incentive but offered a way of distraction by playing a video clip to watch (Control 2 Condition). When they were done with the task, participants filled out a questionnaire about the experience. The results supported the hypothesis: whereas the Money to Self treatment only marginally improved participants` performance on the task the Money to Charity treatment greatly improved participants` performance. Participants in the Money to Charity condition, compared to those in the other conditions, reported that they found their experience more meaningful. Presumably, this perception of meaning in the Money to Charity condition drove participants to expand more effort in performing the task. Moreover, participants in the Money to Charity condition reported that they would be willing to engage in the same task even with much smaller rewards to themselves. This indicated that participants in the Money to Charity condition was more motivated not only for the current task at hand but also for the similar task in the future. Taken together, the present findings confirmed the potential of using an opportunity for charitable giving in motivating consumers. Because the study involved real money and real behavior, it provides not only theoretical insights for researchers but also practical implications for marketers.

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7비용 지불 단계에서 소비자에게 제시된 결제 금액과 프레이밍 효과

저자 : 전호성 ( Ho Seong Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 153-177 (25 pages)

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하영원과 한혜진(2002)은 시간적 리프레이밍(temporal reframing) 이론을 확장하여 소비자들이 가격을 지불할 때 지출 총액을 기준으로 수용할 수 있는 금액이라고 생각되는 경계조건 내에서는 분리 프레임을 더 선호한다고 주장하였다. 반면 우리가 평소 물건을 구입할 때 제시된 금액이 적다고 생각하면 일시불로 결제를 하지만 금액이 크다고 판단하면 분할 납부를 선호하는 성향을 고려할 때 이러한 관점은 평소 우리들이 경험한 직관과는 상이한 결과를 제시하고 있다고 생각하였다. 따라서 본 연구는 거래와 관련된 소비자들의 의사결정 과정을 거래를 수락하는 단계와 비용을 지불하는 단계로 나눌 경우 이러한 차이를 설명할 수 있을 것이라고 생각하고 연구를 진행하였다. 특히 이번 연구는 비용을 지불하는 단계에 초점을 맞추어 소비자들에게 제시된 지출 금액의 높고 낮음에 따라 프레임에 대한 소비자 선호가 달라질 수 있다고 가정하고, 3번의 실험을 통해 비용 지불 단계에서 소비자들에게 제시된 결제 금액의 크기와 선택 프레임에 대한 소비자들의 선호가 어떠한 관계를 갖고 있는지 살펴보았다. 연구 결과, 비용 지불 단계에서는 소비자들이 일시불로 결제가 가능하다고 생각하는 경계조건을 기준으로 제시된 결제 금액이 이보다 낮을 때는 통합 프레임(예: 일시불 조건)을 선호하였으며 제시된 결제 금액이 경계조건보다 높을 때는 분리 프레임(예: 할부 조건)을 더 선호하였다. 이번 연구는 이러한 현상이 발생할 수 있는 기제로 해석수준이론(construal level theory)과 이에 기반한 지불비용감소(payment depreciation) 현상을 제시하고 그 가능 성을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과는 기존의 이론적 연구와 현실의 불일치가 상호 모순되는 것이 아니라 거래 상황에서 의사결정 단계에 따라 프레임의 효과가 달리 나타난 것으로 해석할 수 있다.


Framing theory asserts that choice depends on the way a problem is presented or framed. For example, the widespread use of a PAD(Pennies-a-Day) strategy suggests that if the price is presented as multiple small units to consumers, their perception of loss is decreased. Especially, according to Gourville(1998), when consumers are asked to evaluate the transaction, they prefer to be anchored on small on-going expenses rather than on the total cost. However, this assertion for segregating costs contradicts our experiences that prefer to integrate the total cost as a single expense when the amount of expenditure is regarded as below the level we can afford it. To solve this apparent contradiction between theory and practice, we try to suggest a theoretical framework that can integrate these mixed evidences. Specifically, we regard that if there are two difference decision making stages(i.e., transaction acceptance vs. payment consideration) in the transaction, previous studies only examined the effect of frame in the vein of the transaction acceptance stage. To figure out the another unexplained domain, we focus on the payment consideration stage in this study. We try to identify the effect of frame at this stage and examine which choice frame(i.e., segregation or aggregation) is regarded more valuable depending upon the perceived amount of the payment(i.e., large or small). We think that the absolute expenditure level could work as a boundary condition at this stage. Because Ha and Han(2002) asserted that the absolute expenditure level in addition to small on-going expense had taken a role of boundary condition in the effect of temporal reframing. Our study consists of a pre-test and three main studies. The pre-test administered to identify the general perceptions of the amount of expenditure which are to be considered as boundary condition in the typical transaction. The outcomes show that it is around 200,000 won. In Study 1, we try to confirm whether the effect of frame can be different according to the transaction stage consumer faced. The results show that people render preference toward segregated option at the transaction acceptance stage. However the subjects with payment consideration stage go for aggregated option. Thus, these outcomes support our research questions that the effect of frame could not be identical according to the decision making stage consumer involved. Study 2 is conducted to confirm our research hypothesis on the payment consideration stage. Study 2 adopted 3 x 2 between-group design. That is, amount of total expenditure with 3 conditions(i.e., 120,000 won, 210,000 won and 420,000 won) and expenditure frame with 2 conditions(i.e., aggregation and segregation)are implemented in Study 2. The outcomes of Study 2 show that the subjects with below or on the boundary condition prefer to select the aggregated option but the respondents with above the boundary condition go for segregated option. These results support our research hypothesis. Study 3 proceeds to check the theoretical foundation underpinning our research hypothesis. In respect to the outcomes, we propose payment depreciation based on the construal level theory as the underlying mechanism for our research conceptions at the payment consideration stage. In Study 3, the payment depreciation was only found at the high expenditure condition. Considering that the segregated frame temporarily separated payment from the transaction, we think that consumer`s preference to segregated frame has relation to payment depreciation. This finding could be regarded as supporting our reasoning in this study. In general, this study supports our prediction that the effect of frame could be differed according to the consumer`s decision making stage at the transaction. It means that there might be two kinds of temporal reframing strategies in relation to the boundary condition(i.e., on-going expense vs. total expenditure) they faced.

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8"서비스 품질-고객만족" 관계에서의 심리적 메커니즘 고찰

저자 : 박종철 ( Jong Chul Park ) , 오혜영 ( Hye Young Oh ) , 홍성준 ( Sung Jun Hong )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 179-202 (24 pages)

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그동안 서비스 품질구성 요인들이 고객만족이나 서비스 충성도에 중요한 영향을 미치며 이러한 효과가 고객유형 같은 조절변수(신규고객 vs. 기존고객)에 따라 달라질 수 있음이 제시되었다. 그러나 기존 연구들은 서비스 품질의 위계구조를 파악하거나 이들 품질요인들이 여러 종속변수(예; 고객만족, 고객충성도, 구매의도)에 미치는 차별적 효과에 집중하였을 뿐, 왜 그러한 영향을 미치는지에 대한 심리적 기재(특히, 감정적 반응)를 밝히는 데는 소홀하였다. 이에 본 연구에서는 기존 연구를 토대로 서비스 품질의 세 가지 차원을 은행서비스 상황에 적용시켜, 서비스 품질의 세 가지 차원(과정품질, 결과품질, 물리적 환경품질)이 고객만족도에 영향을 미치는데 있어 호혜성이라는 새로운 감정변수의 매개역할을 고찰하고자 한다. 분석결과, 결과품질과 환경품질은 지각된 가치에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나, 과정품질은 지각된 가치에 유의한 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 과정품질이 지각된 가치에 영향을 미치지 않은 이유는 은행서비스의 특성상 종업원의 친절, 직원에 대한 믿음, 전문성 및 지식에 대하여 고객들이 당연한 서비스로 인식했기 때문으로 추론된다. 또한 서비스 품질이 신뢰형성에 미치는 효과와 관련해서는 과정품질과 결과품질만이 신뢰형성에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 서비스 품질과 호혜성 형성과 관련해서는 과정품질과 결과품질이 호혜성 지각에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나, 환경품질이 호혜성 지각에는 유의한 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로 지각된 가치와 신뢰, 그리고 호혜성 지각은 고객만족도에 모두 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 결과적으로 본 연구를 통해 우리는 서비스의 결과품질은 소비자들로 하여금 다양한 인지적(지각된 가치 및 신뢰형성)반응과 감정적 반응(호혜성)을 유발하여 고객만족에 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있었다.


During the past two decades has much research effort on the field of service quality as a major driver of business performance(customer satisfaction).It has become a key strategic issue on service management`s agenda. As service companies continue to seek unique source of sustainable competitive advantage, service quality has been discussed conceptually as a potential alternative to traditional skills and resources, as well as empirically tested as a potential driver of improving performance(customer satisfaction). Above all, previous studies were only investigated perceived value and trust as a cognitive mechanism in the ``service quality-customer satisfaction`` relation. So, the aim of this research is to examine reciprocity as a psychological mechanism(especially an affective response) in the relationship between service quality dimensions(outcome quality, process quality, physical environment quality) and customer satisfaction. Therefore, different from the past studies, in this study we postulates that the reciprocity plays an essential mediating role in the relationship between the three dimensions of service quality and customer satisfaction. A model integrating three dimensions of service quality, perceived value, trust, reciprocity and the customer satisfaction is tested using the data of 200 general consumers. Sample and Data Collection: This data was collected in two large cities in South Korea: Seoul and Kwangju. 200 general consumers utilizing bank services participated in the survey. Participants were recruited from people attending evening cultural education programs provided by local community centers and MBA programs provided by University. In terms of demographics, slightly more than a half of participants were male(n=136), and 89%(n=178) had a higher education. Participants held various occupational backgrounds; housewives (n=7), corporate managers(n=88), public officials(n=23), self-employed(n=13), teachers(n=4), professional practices(n=26), skilled laborers(n=3), students(n=7), and others(n=29). Data analysis was conducted in three phases. The first phase was measurement analysis (i.e., item purification and facture structure confirmation) involving the scales of the three dimensions of Service Quality, perceived risk, trust, perceived reciprocity, and customer satisfaction. In the second phase, the structural relationships among the key constructs proposed in Fig 1 were estimated. In the last phase, the mediating effect was examined. Structural Model: the structural equations model is estimated by using LISREL 8.30. The goodness-of-fit statistics are acceptable(χ2=166.41, df=98(p=.000), GFI=.910, AGFI=.860, NFI=.920, CFI=.956, RMR=.055). Convergent validity was assessed using the significance and magnitude of factor loadings. As is shown in Table 2, the magnitudes of factor loadings ranged from 0.61 and 0.85 and all the loadings were significant (p<0.01). Discriminant validity among the three dimensions of service quality were examined by performing a chi-square difference test between a model where all the factor correlations were fixed at 1.0 and the unconstrained model(see the ``Φ Matrix`` of Table 3). The constrained model showed a significantly poorer fit compared to the unconstrained model. After confirming the measurement models, the model shown in Figure 1 is estimated using LISREL 8.30. In this model, all constructs were operationalized through their summed scaled indexes, resulting in one indicator for its construct. The LISERL analysis shows a satisfactory fit of the model as indicated by the GFI(.895), AGFI(.845), NFI(.886), NNFI(.916), CFI (.935), RMR(.066), RMSEA(.068), respectively. However, the chi-square test was significant (x2=198.73, df=104, p<0.00). Given the satisfactory fit of the model, the estimated path coefficients were then examined to evaluate the hypotheses. The results of data analysis showed that the process quality positively influences on the trust and reciprocity. However, the process quality had a significant impact not on the perceived value. Also, the outcome quality positively influences on the perceived value, trust and reciprocity. Physical environment quality only impacts on the perceived value. Finally, our results indicated that the perceived value, trust, and reciprocity have a significant influence on the customer satisfaction. Thus, this study demonstrates that reciprocity indeed plays a mediating role between the service quality and the customer satisfaction. Also, we has known the facts inducing affective responses in the service context. The results of this study will help managers to understand the relative importance of the three different quality.

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9지역이미지와 소재원산지 평가가 지역제품구입에 미치는 효과

저자 : 김해룡 ( Hae Ryong Kim ) , 이형탁 ( Hyoung Tark Lee )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 203-225 (23 pages)

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최근 지역원산지효과와 관련된 연구들이 늘고 있다. 본 연구는 국내 사과산지에서 생산되는 와인에 대한 소비자들의 구입의사를 소재원산지평가 관점에서 살펴보고 있다. 본 연구는 지역이미지를 소재원산지평가의 선행변수로 제시하면서 지역이미지가 구입의사에 미치는 직·간접효과를 살폈다. 또한 소재원산지평가가 구입의사에 미치는 영향력을 지각된 가치와 지각된 위험의 매개과정으로 설명하였다. 연구결과 지역의 인지적이미지와 정서적이미지는 모두 해당지역의 소재원산지평가에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 지역이미지가 구입의사에 미치는 직접효과는 입증되지 않았다. 한편 소재원산지평가는 와인의 구입의사에 직접적이고 긍정적인 영향을 미칠 뿐만 아니라, 와인에 대한 지각된 가치를 높이거나 지각된 위험을 낮추는 과정을 통해서 간접적으로 구입의사에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이를 통해 지역브랜드와 제품생산과 관련된 소재원산지 단서를 체계적으로 활용하는 전략이 해당 지역에서 제품을 생산하여 판매하는 기업들에게 유용한 마케팅전략이 될 수 있음을 알 수 있다.


Several studies have shown that a product`s country of origin(hereafter COO) can influence consumers` evaluations of the product. However, despite their importance, the studies of place-of-origin effects(hereafter POO) have remained largely neglected. Consider, though, that POO may be expected to have a large effect on product evaluation, it is unclear what process by which product evaluation is formed. The existing literature suggests that COO construct can be broadly understood and decomposed from a single measure to a multidimensional construct. For example, country-of-design(COD) and country-of-parts(COP) evaluations affect consumer perceptions of product quality. In the present research, we investigate the relationship among place image, POO evaluations, and consumers` purchase intentions of the regional product. Especially, we will consider the POO evaluations, giving a highlight on the place-of-parts(hereafter POP) for the regional product. To explain how POP evaluations create purchase intentions of the regional product, we suggest the role of both perceived value and perceived risk. Specifically, this study explains how both perceived value and perceived risk can mediate the effects of POP evaluations on purchase intentions of the regional product(apple-wine). We also suggest that adding place image is needed to consider different effects on purchase intentions. The present study considers place image as an antecedent of consumers` POP evaluations. It also considers the direct relationship between place image and purchase intentions of the regional product. To test the hypotheses, we took a survey with 245 adult consumers. Apple-wine was selected for the study because wine consumers are highly influenced by wine attributes such as brand and producers. POO information also could be one of the most important factors influencing wine consumption. We established the following hypotheses. H 1.1: Consumers` cognitive associations for the place(place image) have a positive relationship with POP evaluations. H 1.2: Consumers` affective associations for the place(place image) have a positive relationship with POP evaluations. H 2.1: Consumers` cognitive associations for the place(place image) have a positive relationship with purchase intentions of the regional product. H 2.1: Consumers` affective associations for the place(place image) have a positive relationship with purchase intentions of the regional product. H 3.1: Consumers` POP evaluations have a positive relationship with perceived value of the regional product. H 3.2: Consumers` perceived value has a positive relationship with purchase intentions of the regional product. H 3.3: Consumers` POP evaluations have a negative relationship with perceived risk of the regional product. H 3.4: Consumers` perceived risk has a negative relationship with purchase intentions of the regional product. H 4: Consumers` POP evaluations have a positive relationship with purchase intentions of the regional product. The results of measurement model indicate that the across construct confirmatory factor analysis provided an acceptable fit to the data. We tested the proposed conceptual model using structural equation modeling. The results also indicate that the data fit our conceptual model acceptably. The results show that both cognitive and affective place image have influence on POP evaluations in the positive direction. However, place image has no direct effect on purchase intentions. Meanwhile, POP evaluations can also have a positive direct influence on purchase intentions. This study also found that POP evaluations increase purchase intentions, mediated by customers` perceived value and perceived risk. Perceived risk also has a negative relations with perceived value. This study extends the existing research stream on place marketing. Based on the COO related theories, the present study confirms that POP can be a key factor in terms of building consumers` positive attitude for the regional products. This study also offers insight in to understanding of marketing strategy for the regional products. Specifically, results provide support for the contention that the application of place image and product-related origin informations is an effective way to increase the regional product`s marketing performance.

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10모바일 사용 혜택과 비용이 모바일 기기와의 자아연결에 미치는 영향: 패션 어플리케이션 사용/비사용자 간 비교 고찰

저자 : 윤남희 ( Nam Hee Yoon ) , 추호정 ( Ho Jung Choo )

발행기관 : 한국소비자학회 간행물 : 소비자학연구 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2011 페이지 : pp. 227-252 (26 pages)

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본 연구는 모바일 기기 중 스마트폰을 대상으로 소비자와 모바일 기기와의 관계 형성 및 그 설명요인에 대해 살펴보았다. 모바일 기기와 모바일 어플리케이션의 혜택을 구분하고, 각 혜택은 효용적 차원과 쾌락적 차원을 포함하고 있으며 모바일 기기와 소비자의 자아연결에 영향을 미칠 것으로 제안하였다. 또한 모바일 사용상 지각된 인지적 비용 역시 사용 혜택과의 상호작용을 통해 관계성 형성에 영향을 미칠 것으로 보았다. 스마트폰을 보유하고 앱스토어를 통해 직접 어플리케이션을 다운로드하여 사용한 경험이 있는 20-30대 소비자를 연구대상으로 설문조사하여, 최종 478부의 응답치를 분석하였다. 특히 패션제품의 커뮤니케이션 매체로서 스마트폰과 어플리케이션의 잠재력을 예측하고자 하는 관점에서 패션 어플리케이션 사용자와 비사용자로 표본을 나누어 두 집단 간 모델의 차이를 검증하였다. 연구결과, 모바일 기기와 소비자의 자아연결의 관계형성에는 모바일 기기 및 어플리케이션의 쾌락적 혜택이 효용적 혜택보다 중요함을 확인하였다. 그러나 모바일 기기 사용의 인지적 비용이 큰 경우, 모바일 기기의 사회적 매력성이 모바일 기기와 소비자의 자아연결에 미치는 영향력은 감소되는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 이러한 과정은 패션 어플리케이션 사용자와 비사용자간 차이가 나타났는데, 패션 혁신성이 높은 패션어플리케이션 사용자는 정보충족성과 사회적 연결성만 자아연결 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀져 편향적인 모바일 기기와의 관계를 형성하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 이에 반해 패션 어플리케이션 비사용자는 모바일에서 더욱 강조되는 혜택인 개인화와 유희성이 자아연결에 주요한 영향 변인임을 알 수 있었고, 특히 인지적 비용이 증가할수록 정보충족성과 유희성 혜택이 자아연결에 미치는 영향이 증가함을 확인하였다. 본 연구결과를 토대로 스마트 폰뿐만 아니라 다양한 향후 모바일 기기의 등장과 함께 모바일 어플리케이션을 통해 소비자와의 커뮤니케이션 전략을 구사하고자 할 때, 일차적으로 소비자와 기기의 인지적 자아연결을 위한 관계형성에 있어 중요한 혜택 요인을 제언할 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.


A consumer develops a personalized relationship with a product which is in the possession of him/herself through the use experience. This relationship with the product impacts, depending on its nature and strength, on the owner`s self-recognition and awareness. For smart phones, which are creating a huge buzz on the market, users are encouraged to search for and buy mobile applications they want, and download them to their devices. After this, the initial version of the phone becomes a different, customized product. Through continuous purchases and uses of applications, this personalization process further develops, which, in turn, has influence on the smart phone-user relationships. That is, it is believed that smart phones are fully functional when applications are utilized. This study selected consumers in their twenties and thirties, the major bracket of smart phone users, to examine how multiple benefits provided by smart phones and applications, and subsequent cognitive costs impact on the relationships between the user and the phone. Particularly, given the interactions between the benefits and costs, this paper focused on how a smart phone influences on a user`s self-connection in terms of its reciprocal relationship, and analyzed the difference between people who use fashion-related applications and those who do not. The analysis was conducted with data collected from 487 male and female respondents who have owned smart phones and downloaded applications. Before the further analysis, the reliability and the validity of multi-item constructs were tested by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The mobile device benefits was found to be composed of two benefit types, which were utilitarian benefits (technological advantage and safety) and hedonic benefits (aesthetics and social attractiveness). In the same vein, Application benefits also composed of two benefit types of utilitarian (information fulfillment and personalization and hedonic benefits (playfulness and social connectivity). These utilitarian and hedonic benefits from both device and applications had effects on the users` perception of self-connection with their smartphones. It was found that in forming this connectivity, hedonic benefits offered by their mobile devices and applications were more important than utilitarian counterparts. There was difference between users of fashion-related applications and non-users when it came to how the benefits and cognitive costs influence on self-connection to the mobile devices. A group of non-users showed a lower level of fashion innovativeness than that of fashion application users. In this non-user group, the effect of playfulness benefit of applications on the self-connection became stronger when cognitive costs were highly perceived. In order to promote users to select fashion applications, it is important to encourage them to use their efforts to obtain knowledge and services so that they can learn ifs flow, besides the fun and excitement that the application can give to such users. However, for the fashion application using group that showed a high level of fashion innovation, it was shown that information fulfillment and social connectivity were the two factors that significantly influenced on creating relationships with mobile devices. This indicates that the relationship with the mobile devices is important not because of the mobile device itself, but because of the information power and social communication features offered by the device. This study is useful in that it further explained an innovative product`s uses by analyzing it and its services and, more importantly, users` experiences with them. Also by comparing fashion application users and non-users in their relationships with their devices, this paper provided insight on how these advanced mobile phones and their services are used among fashion people, the major marketing target for the fashion industry. Based on the work of this study, relations between the users and various mobile devices, including smart phones, can be further investigated to make suggestions for continued uses of mobile services.

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