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Electrolytes & Blood Pressure update

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17권2호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 5
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Effect of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade on Mortality in Korean Hypertensive Patients with Proteinuria

저자 : Hyung Jung Oh , Clara Tammy Kim , Dong-ryeol Ryu

발행기관 : 대한전해질학회 간행물 : Electrolytes & Blood Pressure 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 25-35 (11 pages)

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Background: Although renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade is recommended for hypertensive patients with proteinuria, the effect of RAS blockade on Korean hypertensive patients has not been investigated. 
Methods: Among individuals who underwent a National Health Examination between 2002 and 2003 in Korea, hypertensive patients with proteinuria (defined as a dipstick test result ≥2+) were enrolled in this study. We investigated the outcomes of two groups stratified by RAS blockade prescription (with RAS blockade vs. without RAS blockade). Moreover, Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to examine the effects of RAS blockade on mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). 
Results: A total of 8,460 patients were enrolled in this study, of whom 6,236 (73.7%) were prescribed with RAS blockade. The mean follow-up period was 129 months. A total of 1,003 (11.9%) patients died, of whom 273 (3.2%) died of cardiovascular (CV) events. The Kaplan-Meier curves for allcause or CV mortality showed that the survival probability was significantly higher in the RAS blockade group than in the non-RAS blockade group. Multivariate Cox analysis also revealed RAS blockade significantly reduced the all-cause and CV mortality rates by 39.1% and 33.7%, respectively, compared with non-RAS blockade, even after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbid diseases; however, ESRD was not affected. 
Conclusion: In this study, we found that RAS blockade was significantly associated with a reduction in mortality but not in the incidence of ESRD. However, 26.3% of the enrolled patients did not use RAS blockade. Physicians need to consider the usefulness of RAS blockade in hypertensive patients with proteinuria.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Association of Blood Pressure at Specific Time-Points with 1-Year Renal Outcomes in Patients with Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

저자 : Ji Won Ryu , Ran-hui Cha , Hajeong Lee , Yon Su Kim , Jung Pyo Lee , Young Rim Song , Sung Gyun Kim , Se Joong Kim

발행기관 : 대한전해질학회 간행물 : Electrolytes & Blood Pressure 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 36-44 (9 pages)

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Background: The 24-hour mean blood pressure (mBP) is the best predictor of organ damage; however, it is not easily applicable in clinical practice. The APrODiTe study suggested that systolic blood pressure (SBP) values at 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM were associated with the 24-hour mSBP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association of the SBP values at these time-points with the renal outcomes in patients with diabetic CKD during 1-year follow-up.
Methods: Ninety-six patients with diabetic CKD were included at 1-year follow- up. The renal outcomes were an increase in the random urine protein/ creatinine ratio or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) deterioration, which means a decrease in eGFR ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to the baseline values.
Results: The baseline SBP values at 7:00 AM, and 9:30 PM, and the 24- hour mSBP were 135.6±24.9 mmHg, 141.7±25.6 mmHg, and 136.4±20.7 mmHg, respectively. The SBP values measured at the same time-points after 1 year were similar to those at baseline. The SBP at 7:00 AM was significantly associated with eGFR deterioration in the univariate and multivariate analyses (odds ratio [OR]: 1.032; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.006- 1.059; p=0.016). The SBP at 7:00AM and 24-hour mSBP did not show a concordant association with sustained proteinuria in the linear and logistic analyses. In the subgroup analysis, the association between the SBP at 7:00 AM and eGFR deterioration persisted in patients with CKD stage 3-5 (OR: 1.041; 95% CI: 1.010-1.073; p=0.010).
Conclusion: The SBP at 7:00 AM, in addition to the 24-hour mSBP, is also associated with eGFR deterioration in patients with diabetic CKD, particularly in those with CKD stage 3-5.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury after Adrenalectomy in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism

저자 : Jee Young Lee , Hyoungnae Kim , Hyung Woo Kim , Geun Woo Ryu , Yooju Nam , Seonyeong Lee , Young Su Joo , Sangmi Lee , Jung Tak Park , Seung Hyeok Han , Shin-wook Kang , Tae-hyun Yoo , Hae-ryong Yun

발행기관 : 대한전해질학회 간행물 : Electrolytes & Blood Pressure 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 45-53 (9 pages)

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Background: Aldosterone-induced glomerular hyperfiltration can lead to masked preoperative renal dysfunction in primary aldosteronism(PA) patients. We evaluated whether PA patients had a higher prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after unilateral adrenalectomy. In addition, we identified risk factors for AKI in these subjects.
Methods: This retrospective study included 107 PA patients, and 186 pheochromocytoma patients as a control group, all of whom underwent adrenalectomy between January 2006 and November 2017 at Yonsei University Severance Hospital. The primary outcome was AKI within 48 hours after adrenalectomy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of AKI after adrenalectomy. 
Results: Overall incidence of AKI was 49/293 (16.7%). In PA patients, the incidence of AKI was 29/107 (27.1%). In contrast, incidence of AKI was 20/ 186 (10.7%) in pheochromocytoma patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis both showed a higher risk of postoperative AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients. In addition, old age, diabetes, longer duration of hypertension, lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, high aldosterone-cortisol ratio (ACR) and lateralization index (LI) were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative AKI in PA patients after unilateral adrenalectomy.
Conclusion: Incidence and risk of postoperative AKI were significantly higher in PA patients after surgical treatment. High ACR on the tumor side and high LI were associated with higher risk of AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Baseline High Blood Pressure is Associated with Clinico-Pathologic Findings and Later Renal Progression in Chronic Glomerulonephritis

저자 : Ji Yung Lee , Hyung-seok Ihm , Jin Sug Kim , Hyeon Seok Hwang , Kyung Hwan Jeong , Chun-gyoo Ihm

발행기관 : 대한전해질학회 간행물 : Electrolytes & Blood Pressure 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 54-61 (8 pages)

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Background: Several factors had been suggested to contribute to the development of hypertension in chronic glomerulonephritis (GN). This study was conducted to find the association of baseline blood pressure (BP) with pathophysiologic findings and later renal progression in chronic GN. 
Methods: Clinico-pathological findings including serum creatinine (Cr), proteinuria, pathological findings, and urinary Na excretion were analyzed in a total of 233 patients with IgA nephropathy from The Kyung-Hee Cohort of GN. Glomerular surface area (GSA) was measured by imaging analysis and urine angiotensinogen (AGT) concentrations by human ELISA kits. 
Results: Systolic BP was ≥130mmHg in 124 patients (53%). Systolic BP was negatively correlated with follow-up eGFR (r=-0.32, p<0.0001) and positively serum uric acid concentrations, while it had no significant relationships with initial serum Cr and eGFR. As compared with patients with systolic BP <130 mmHg, those with ≥130 mmHg were older and showed higher serum Cr, proteinuria, 24 hr urinary Na excretion, mean GSA, and T-I fibrosis, lower follow-up eGFR, and steeper decline in slope of eGFR. The results in patients with normal serum Cr concentrations were comparable to those in whole group. Systolic BP was positively correlated with age, baseline and follow-up proteinuria, serum uric acid concentrations and IgM deposit and negatively with follow-up eGFR. In subgroup analysis, systolic BP was also positively correlated with mean GSA and urinary AGT concentrations. 
Conclusion: This study showed that baseline systolic BP is related to urinary Na excretion, glomerulomegaly, T-I fibrosis and later renal progression in patients with IgA nephropathy.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Severe Hypophosphatemia-Induced Acute Toxic-Metabolic Encephalopathy in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

저자 : Sun Ae Han , Ha Yeol Park , Hyun Woo Kim , Jong In Choi , Da Yeong Kang , Hyun Lee Kim , Jong Hoon Chung , Byung Chul Shin

발행기관 : 대한전해질학회 간행물 : Electrolytes & Blood Pressure 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 62-65 (4 pages)

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Acute toxic-metabolic encephalopathy (TME) is an acute condition of global cerebral dysfunction in the absence of primary structural brain disease. Severe hypophosphatemia leads to muscle weakness and involves the diaphragm but hypophosphatemia-induced TME is very rare. Herein, we report the case of a 43-year-old woman with encephalopathy with severe hypophosphatemia during continuous renal replacement therapy. She presented with features of oliguric acute kidney injury on diabetic kidney disease due to volume depletion. At admission, her mental status was alert but gradually changed to stupor mentation during continuous renal replacement therapy. Her phosphate level was less than 0.41 mEq/L and Glasgow coma scale decreased from 15 to 5. After phosphate intravenous replacement and administration of phosphate-containing replacement solution, the phosphate level increased to 2.97 mEq/L and mental state returned to alert state. This case demonstrates that the level of phosphorus should be observed during continuous renal replacement therapy.

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